FORM S-3
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 11, 2023

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

PARDES BIOSCIENCES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   85-2696306

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 250

PMB#052

Carlsbad, CA 92008

(415) 649-8758

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Thomas G. Wiggans

Chief Executive Officer

Pardes Biosciences, Inc.

2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 250

PMB#052

Carlsbad, CA 92008

(415) 649-8758

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

Douglas N. Cogen

Ran D. Ben-Tzur

Jennifer J. Hitchcock

Fenwick & West LLP

555 California Street

San Francisco, CA 94104

(415) 875-2300

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering:  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earliest effective registration statement for the same offering:  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the -Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I. D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended:

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
Emerging growth company       

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $200.0 million of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities; and

 

   

a prospectus supplement covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $50.0 million of our common stock that may be issued and sold under a sales agreement, dated as of January 11, 2023, with SVB Securities LLC (“SVB Securities”).

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus.

The prospectus supplement relating to the sales agreement immediately follows the base prospectus. The $50.0 million of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the sales agreement prospectus supplement is included in the $200.0 million of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement with SVB Securities, $200.0 million in offerings less the aggregate value of any shares sold pursuant to offerings under the sales agreement prospectus supplement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement. If no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $200.0 million of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities, in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JANUARY 11, 2023

PROSPECTUS

$200,000,000

LOGO

Pardes Biosciences, Inc.

Common Stock, Preferred Stock,

Debt Securities, Warrants, Subscription Rights and Units

 

 

From time to time, we may offer up to $200.0 million aggregate dollar amount of shares of our common stock or preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities, in any combination, together or separately, in one or more offerings, in amounts, at prices and on the terms that we will determine at the time of the offering and which will be set forth in a prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. The total amount of these securities will have an initial aggregate offering price of up to $200.0 million.

You should read this prospectus, the information incorporated, or deemed to be incorporated, by reference in this prospectus, and any applicable prospectus supplement and related free writing prospectus carefully before you invest.

Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “PRDS.” On January 10, 2023, the last reported sales price for our common stock was $2.03 per share. None of the other securities we may offer are currently traded on any securities exchange. The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on The Nasdaq Global Market or any securities market or exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus.

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the information under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 7 of this prospectus before investing in our securities.

Common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights and/or units may be sold by us to or through underwriters or dealers, directly to purchasers or through agents designated from time to time. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, discounts or commissions, details regarding over-allotment options, if any, and the net proceeds to us will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is             , 2023


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     PAGE  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

SELECTED DEFINITIONS

     2  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     7  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     8  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     10  

INCORPORATION OF INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     11  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     12  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     13  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     15  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     21  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     28  

DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

     30  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     31  

LEGAL MATTERS

     32  

EXPERTS

     32  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, from time to time, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $200.0 million. Each time we offer our securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of the offering. We may also add, update or change in a prospectus supplement any of the information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus and the prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement; provided that, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to this offering. You should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the headings “Incorporation of Information by Reference” and “Where You Can Find More Information” before buying any of our securities in this offering.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. No dealer, salesperson or any other person is authorized to give any information or to make any representation other than the information and representations contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. If different information is given or different representations are made, you may not rely on that information or those representations as having been authorized by us. You may not imply from the delivery of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, nor from a sale made under this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, that our affairs are unchanged since the date of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or that the information contained in any document incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or any sale of a security. This prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement may only be used where it is legal to sell the securities.

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO OFFER AND SELL SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

Pardes, the Pardes logo, and other registered or common law trade names, trademarks, or service marks of Pardes appearing in this prospectus are the property of Pardes. This prospectus also contains or incorporates by reference documents that contain references to trademarks, trade names and service marks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we or the applicable licensor will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our or its rights to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included in this document are the property of their respective owners.

 

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SELECTED DEFINITIONS

Unless otherwise stated in this prospectus or the context otherwise requires, references to:

Board” means the board of directors of Pardes.

Business Combination” means the business combination pursuant to the Merger Agreement.

Bylaws” means the Amended and Restated Bylaws of Pardes, as amended and/or restated from time to time.

Certificate of Incorporation” or “Charter” means the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Pardes, as amended and/or restated from time to time.

Closing” means the closing of the Business Combination.

Closing Date” means December 23, 2021.

DGCL” means the Delaware General Corporation Law.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

FSDC II” means FS Development Corp. II, our predecessor.

FSDC II Investors” means FS Development Holdings II, LLC, Daniel Dubin, Owens Hughes and Deepa Pakianathan.

Major Pardes Investors” means Foresite Capital Opportunity Fund V, L.P., Foresite Capital Fund V, L.P., Khosla Ventures Seed D, LP, Khosla Ventures VII, LP, GMF Pardes, LLC, Uri A. Lopatin, M.D., Lopatin Descendants’ Trust, Lee D. Arnold, Ph.D., Brian P. Kearney PharmD, Heidi Henson, Elizabeth H. Lacy, Mark Auerbach, and Michael D. Varney, Ph.D. and their permitted transferees.

Merger” means the merger of Old Pardes with and into Merger Sub pursuant to the Merger Agreement, with Old Pardes as the surviving entity.

Merger Agreement” means the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of June 29, 2021 (as amended on November 7, 2021) by and among FSDC II, Merger Sub, Old Pardes and the Shareholders Representative.

Merger Sub” means Orchard Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of FSDC II prior to the Closing.

Old Pardes” means Pardes Biosciences, Inc. prior to the Closing.

Pardes Equityholders” means the holders of equity interests in Old Pardes as of the time immediately before the Business Combination.

Registration Rights Agreement” means the Registration Rights Agreement, dated December 23, 2021, by and among FSDC II, Old Pardes, the FSDC II Investors and the Major Pardes Investors.

SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission or any successor organization.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Shareholders Representative” means Shareholder Representative Services LLC, a Colorado limited liability company solely in its capacity as the representative, agent and attorney-in-fact of the Pardes Equityholders.

 

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Sponsor” means FS Development Holdings II, LLC.

Voting Agreement” means the Voting Agreement, dated December 23, 2021, by and among Sponsor, Pardes and each of the parties listed on the signature pages thereto.

We,” “us,” “our,” or “Pardes” mean Pardes Biosciences, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries after the Closing.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained in other parts of this prospectus or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary may not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in securities. You should read the entire prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus carefully, including “Risk Factors” and the financial data and related notes and other information incorporated by reference, before making an investment decision. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing novel oral anti-viral therapeutics to improve the lives of patients suffering from life-threatening disease, starting with our lead product candidate, PBI-0451, which is in clinical development and intended to treat and prevent COVID-19 in adult and pediatric patients. COVID-19 is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has emerged as the most significant pandemic threat to the world in many decades. We have built a discovery platform designed to target reactive nucleophiles, such as those in cysteine proteases. By leveraging our understanding of structure-based drug design, reversible covalent chemistry and viral biology, we have discovered and are developing novel product candidates with low nanomolar potency against SARS-CoV-2 and broad activity against all known pathogenic human coronaviruses. Our lead product candidate, PBI-0451, inhibits the main coronaviral cysteine protease (Mpro), a viral protein essential for replication of all known coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In preclinical studies, PBI-0451 has demonstrated activity against all coronaviral proteases tested to date, as well as inhibition of replication of multiple coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 clinical variants of concern, including those in the Omicron-lineage. In preclinical studies, PBI-0451 demonstrated the potential for oral bioavailability across multiple preclinical species. More recently, it has demonstrated oral bioavailability in healthy volunteers in our Phase 1 clinical trials. We believe the anti-viral potency seen against SARS-CoV-2 in preclinical in vitro studies and demonstrated oral bioavailability in humans supports PBI-0451’s potential to be an oral direct acting antiviral (DAA) for use against COVID-19.

We plan to develop PBI-0451 for both oral treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 in adult and pediatric patients. Given the highly conserved nature of the Mpro target, which is shared among all known coronaviruses, we believe PBI-0451 will likely continue to retain its potency and activity against current and most emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

Following productive discussions with the FDA, we commenced a Phase 2 clinical trial in September 2022 (NCT 05543707) evaluating PBI-0451 for the treatment of COVID-19. Data from the Phase 2 clinical trial is expected in the first quarter of 2023. During the pendency of our Phase 2 clinical trial, we will continue to engage in discussions with the FDA and other global regulatory authorities regarding our clinical development program for PBI-0451, including clinical design, patient populations, endpoints (primary and secondary), comparator, and other key study design elements for our potential Phase 3 clinical trials. Subject to Phase 2 clinical trial results and continued discussions with the FDA and global regulatory authorities, we are currently planning to initiate our Phase 3 program in the first half of 2023.

Since our inception in 2020, we have devoted substantially all our efforts and financial resources to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, discovering product candidates, preparing and filing related patent applications and conducting research and development activities for our product candidates. We have not yet successfully completed any Phase 2 clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of any of our product candidates, including PBI-0451, nor have we obtained any regulatory approvals, manufactured a commercial-scale drug, or conducted sales and marketing activities. We do not have any products approved for sale and we have not generated any revenue from product sales.

 

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Corporate Information

We were initially a blank check or special purpose acquisition company called FS Development Corp. II, incorporated in Delaware on August 21, 2020, formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses or entities. On the Closing Date, FSDC II, Old Pardes and Merger Sub consummated the Business Combination pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement.

On the day prior to the Closing Date, Old Pardes changed its name to “Pardes Biosciences Sub, Inc.” Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, on the Closing Date, (i) FSDC II changed its name to “Pardes Biosciences, Inc” and (ii) Old Pardes and Merger Sub consummated the Merger, with Old Pardes as the surviving company in the Merger and, after giving effect to such Merger, Old Pardes becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pardes Biosciences, Inc. (f/k/a FS Development Corp. II). Old Pardes was merged with and into Pardes on January 31, 2022.

Our corporate mailing address for our principal executive office is 2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 250, PMB#052, Carlsbad, CA 92008, and our telephone number is 415-649-8758. Our website address is http://pardesbio.com. The information contained in or accessible from our website is not incorporated into this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference. Investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.

The Securities We May Offer

With this prospectus, we may offer common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities in any combination. The aggregate offering price of securities that we offer with this prospectus will not exceed $200.0 million. Each time we offer securities with this prospectus, we will provide offerees with a prospectus supplement that will contain the specific terms of the securities being offered. The following is a summary of the securities we may offer with this prospectus.

Common Stock

We may offer shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

Preferred Stock

We may offer shares of our preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, in one or more series. Our Board or a committee designated by the Board will determine the dividend, voting, conversion and other rights of the series of shares of preferred stock being offered. Each series of preferred stock will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or the winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock.

Debt Securities

We may offer general obligations, which may be secured or unsecured, senior or subordinated and convertible into shares of our common stock or preferred stock. In this prospectus, we refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities together as the “debt securities.” Our Board will determine the terms of each series of debt securities being offered.

 

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We will issue the debt securities under an indenture between us and a trustee. In this document, we have summarized general features of the debt securities from the indenture. We encourage you to read the indenture, which is an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Warrants

We may offer warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities. Our Board will determine the terms of the warrants.

Subscription Rights

We may offer subscription rights for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may issue subscription rights independently or together with other securities. Our Board will determine the terms of the subscription rights.

Units

We may offer units consisting of some or all of the securities described above, in any combination, including common stock, preferred stock, warrants and/or debt securities. The terms of these units will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The description of the terms of these units in the related prospectus supplement will not be complete. You should refer to the applicable form of unit and unit agreement for complete information with respect to these units.

 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions detailed under the section titled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for our most recently completed fiscal year, in any Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q that have been filed since our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in any other documents that we file (not furnish) with the SEC under the Exchange Act. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference.” The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our or our management team’s expectations, hopes, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future, including those relating to the success, cost and timing of our product development activities and clinical trials, the potential attributes and benefits of our product candidates, our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval for our product candidates and our ability to obtain funding for our operations. In addition, any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking.

Forward-looking statements relating to Pardes in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations, financial results and liquidity and capital resources, including due to the pandemic’s impact on our research and development activities, clinical trials and employees;

 

   

the ability of our clinical trials to demonstrate acceptable safety and efficacy of our product candidates, including PBI-0451, our lead product candidate, and other positive results;

 

   

the timing, progress and results of clinical trials for PBI-0451 and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work;

 

   

the period during which the results of the clinical trials will become available;

 

   

the initiation, timing, progress, results and costs of our research and development programs and our current and future preclinical studies, nonclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

   

our ability to initiate, recruit and enroll patients in and conduct our clinical trials at the pace that we project;

 

   

the timing, scope and likelihood of regulatory filings;

 

   

our ability to obtain emergency use authorization or marketing approval of PBI-0451 and any future product candidates on expected timelines and to meet existing or future regulatory standards or comply with post-authorization or post-approval requirements;

 

   

our expectations regarding the potential market size, government stockpiling and the size of the patient populations for our product candidates, if approved for commercial use;

 

   

the performance of third parties in connection with the development of our product candidates, including third-party suppliers and manufacturers;

 

   

our intellectual property position and expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection;

 

   

our ability to identify additional products, product candidates or technologies with significant commercial potential that are consistent with our commercial objectives;

 

   

our expected future growth;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future financial performance and capital requirements;

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations in the United States and foreign countries;

 

   

our competitive position and expectations regarding developments and projections relating to our competitors and any competing therapies that are or become available;

 

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developments and expectations regarding our industry; and

 

   

other risks and uncertainties indicated in this prospectus, including those detailed under “Risk Factors”.

The forward-looking statements in this prospectus are based on current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that we have anticipated. We cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein will prove to be accurate. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise, except as required by law.

Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified and some of which are beyond our control, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this prospectus, the events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. You should refer to the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements.

You should read this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and such statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered hereby. This prospectus, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith or the documents incorporated by reference therein. For further information about us and the securities offered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith and the documents incorporated by reference therein. Statements contained in this prospectus regarding the contents of any contract or any other document that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, we refer you to the copy of such contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement.

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act, and are required to file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and various other information about us. You may access, free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after such each such report is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC.

Information about us is also available on our website at http://www.pardesbio.com. However, the information on our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

 

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INCORPORATION OF INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus and any prospectus supplement information that we file with the SEC. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. Any information referenced in this way is considered part of this prospectus. Any subsequent information filed with the SEC will automatically be deemed to update and supersede the information either contained, or incorporated by referenced, into this prospectus, and will be considered to be part of this prospectus from the date those documents are filed. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus.

We incorporate by reference in this prospectus the documents listed below that have been previously filed with the SEC as well as any filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part until the termination or completion of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus; provided, however, we are not incorporating by reference any documents or portions of documents deemed to have been furnished rather than filed in accordance with SEC rules:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 29, 2022;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2022 (as filed with the SEC on May 10, 2022), June  30, 2022 (as filed with the SEC on August 15, 2022), and September  30, 2022 (as filed with the SEC on November 7, 2022);

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 28, 2022, March  2, 2022, June  9, 2022, June  10, 2022, September  13, 2022, September  14, 2022, and October 17, 2022;

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A/A (File No. 001-40067), filed with the SEC under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act on December 23, 2021, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

   

All reports and other documents we subsequently file with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement.

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of such documents that has been incorporated herein by reference (other than exhibits to such documents unless such exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into the documents that this prospectus incorporates). Written or oral requests for copies should be directed to Pardes Biosciences, Inc., Attn: Investor Relations, 2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 250, PMB#052, Carlsbad, CA 92008, telephone (415) 649-8758. See the section of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” for information concerning how to obtain copies of materials that we file with the SEC.

Any statement contained in this prospectus, or in a document, all or a portion of which is incorporated by reference, shall be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not, except as so modified or superseded, constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds to us from the sale of our securities under this prospectus. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include funding the continued progress of our preclinical and clinical development, research and development costs, potential strategic acquisitions or licensing of complementary businesses, services or technologies, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities. Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, pending the application of net proceeds, we expect to invest the net proceeds in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit, or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities covered by this prospectus to one or more underwriters for public offering and sale by them, and may also sell the securities to investors directly or through agents. We will name any underwriter or agent involved in the offer and sale of securities in the applicable prospectus supplement. We have reserved the right to sell or exchange securities directly to investors on our own behalf in jurisdictions where we are authorized to do so. We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus. We may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. We will name in a prospectus supplement any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis, and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal for resale at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.

If we utilize an underwriter in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter at the time of sale and we will provide the name of any underwriter in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.

We will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement any compensation we pay to underwriters, dealers, or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”), the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer shall be fair and reasonable. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and to reimburse them for certain expenses. We may grant underwriters who participate in the distribution of our securities under this prospectus an option to purchase additional securities in connection with the distribution.

The securities we offer under this prospectus may or may not be listed through The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC or any other securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their option to purchase additional securities. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization

 

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transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and they may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in these sale transactions will be an underwriter and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus. The financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

We will file a prospectus supplement to describe the terms of any offering of our securities covered by this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will disclose:

 

   

the terms of the offer;

 

   

the names of any underwriters, including any managing underwriters, as well as any dealers or agents;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities from us;

 

   

the net proceeds to us from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any delayed delivery arrangements;

 

   

any options under which underwriters, if any, may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any underwriting discounts, commissions or other items constituting underwriters’ compensation, and any commissions paid to agents;

 

   

in a subscription rights offering, whether we have engaged dealer-managers to facilitate the offering or subscription, including their name or names and compensation;

 

   

any public offering price; and

 

   

other facts material to the transaction.

We will bear all or substantially all of the costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of our securities under this prospectus. The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following summary of certain provisions of our securities does not purport to be complete and is subject to the Certificate of Incorporation, the Bylaws and the provisions of applicable law. Copies of the Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws are attached to this prospectus as Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2, respectively. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference.”

Authorized and Outstanding Stock

The Certificate of Incorporation authorizes the issuance of 260,000,000 shares, consisting of 250,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share. As of September 30, 2022, 62,320,924 shares of common stock and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding. In addition, as of September 30, 2022, there were outstanding stock options to purchase 9,810,627 shares of common stock, with a weighted-average exercise price of $6.11 per share.

Common Stock

The Certificate of Incorporation provides the following with respect to the rights, powers, preferences and privileges of the common stock.

Voting Power

Except as otherwise required by law or as otherwise provided in any certificate of designation for any series of preferred stock, the holders of common stock possess all voting power for the election of Pardes’ directors and all other matters requiring stockholder action. Holders of common stock are entitled to one vote per share on matters to be voted on by stockholders.

Dividends

Holders of common stock will be entitled to receive such dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the Board or any authorized committee thereof in its discretion out of funds legally available therefor.

Liquidation, Dissolution and Winding Up

In the event of Pardes’ voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the holders of the common stock will be entitled to receive an equal amount per share of all of Pardes’ assets of whatever kind available for distribution to stockholders, after the rights of the holders of any the preferred stock have been satisfied.

Preemptive or Other Rights

There are no sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock.

Registration Rights

On the Closing Date, FSDC II, Old Pardes, the FSDC II Investors and the Major Pardes Investors entered into a Registration Rights Agreement, pursuant to which, among other things, the FSDC II Investors and the Major Pardes Investors and their permitted transferees (collectively, the “Investors”) were granted certain customary registration rights, including demand, piggy-back and shelf registration rights. The Registration Rights Agreement also provides that Pardes will pay certain expenses relating to such registration and further provides that Pardes will indemnify the Investors in the event of material misstatements or omissions attributable to Pardes in any registration statement registering securities held by the Investors, and that the Investors will indemnify Pardes for material misstatements or omissions attributable to the Investors in any registration statement registering securities held by the Investors.

 

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The foregoing description of the Registration Rights Agreement does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by the full text of the Registration Rights Agreement, a copy of which is attached hereto as Exhibit 4.2 and incorporated herein by reference.

Voting Agreement

On the Closing Date, Pardes, Sponsor and certain holders of our common stock (collectively, the “Voting Parties”) entered into the Voting Agreement, pursuant to which each Voting Party agreed to vote all voting securities of Pardes that it owns from time to time and that it may vote in an election of Pardes’ directors in accordance with the provisions of the Voting Agreement.

Pursuant to the Voting Agreement, through the consummation of the 2024 annual stockholders meeting, at each annual or special meeting of stockholders of Pardes for the election of Class III directors, Sponsor shall have the right to designate for election as a member of the Board, and the Board (including any committee thereof) shall nominate (and recommend for election and include such recommendation in a timely manner in any proxy statement or other applicable announcement to its stockholders), one individual to serve as a Class III director, provided, however, such right automatically terminates on the date on which Sponsor owns less than 1,385,937 shares of common stock (as adjusted for any share split, share dividend or other share recapitalization, share exchange or other event). Sponsor shall only have one nominee serving as a Class III director at any time during the term of the Voting Agreement. If Sponsor ceases to be entitled to nominate any directors, then such directors shall be nominated by the Board and approved by the holders of the outstanding shares of common stock.

The foregoing description of the Voting Agreement does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by the full text of the Voting Agreement, a copy of which is attached hereto as Exhibit 4.3 and is incorporated herein by reference.

Preferred Stock

The Board or any authorized committee thereof has the authority, to the fullest extent permitted by law, to issue shares of preferred stock from time to time on such terms as they may determine, to divide shares of preferred stock into one or more series and to fix the designations, preferences, privileges, and restrictions of preferred stock, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preference, sinking fund terms, and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could have the effect of decreasing the trading price of the common stock, restricting dividends on the capital stock of Pardes, diluting the voting power of the common stock, impairing the liquidation rights of the capital stock of Pardes, or delaying or preventing a change in control of Pardes.

Election of Directors and Vacancies

Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of preferred stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances and the terms and conditions of the Voting Agreement, the number of directors of the Board shall be fixed solely and exclusively by resolution duly adopted from time to time by the Board. Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that our Board is classified into three classes of directors, each with staggered three-year terms.

Under the Bylaws, at all meetings of stockholders called for the election of directors, a plurality of the votes properly cast will be sufficient to elect each director to the Board.

Except as the DGCL or the Voting Agreement may otherwise require and subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of any series of preferred stock, in the interim between annual meetings of stockholders or special meetings of stockholders called for the election of directors and/or the removal of one or more directors and the

 

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filling of any vacancy in that connection, newly created directorships and any vacancies on the Board, including unfilled vacancies resulting from the removal of directors, may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors then in office, even if less than a quorum of the Board. All directors will hold office until the expiration of their respective terms of office and until their successors will have been elected and qualified. A director elected or appointed to fill a vacancy resulting from the death, resignation or removal of a director or a newly created directorship will serve for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the new directorship was created or the vacancy occurred and until his or her successor will have been elected and qualified.

Subject to the rights, if any, of any series of preferred stock and subject to the terms of the Voting Agreement, any director may be removed from office only with cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of capital stock then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Any such director proposed to be removed from office is entitled to advance written notice as described in the Certificate of Incorporation. Subject to the terms and conditions of the Voting Agreement, in case the Board or any one or more directors should be so removed, new directors may be elected at the same time for the unexpired portion of the full term of the director or directors so removed.

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, any director elected pursuant to the right, if any, of the holders of preferred stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances will serve for such term or terms and pursuant to such other provisions as specified in the relevant certificate of designations related to the preferred stock.

Quorum

The holders of a majority of the voting power of the capital stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, will constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business except as otherwise required by law or provided by the Certificate of Incorporation. If, however, such quorum will not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the holders of a majority of the voting power present in person or represented by proxy or the presiding officer will have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum will be present or represented. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum will be present or represented, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally noticed. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting will be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

Anti-takeover effects of certain provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Our Certificate of Incorporation and our Bylaws include a number of provisions that could deter hostile takeovers or delay or prevent changes in control of Pardes, including the following:

 

   

Board vacancies. Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that, subject to the terms of the Registration Rights Agreement and the Voting Agreement, all vacancies, including newly created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum. In addition, the number of directors constituting the Board is permitted to be set only by a resolution adopted by a majority vote of the Board. These provisions would prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of the Board and then gaining control of the Board by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This makes it more difficult to change the composition of the Board but promotes continuity of management.

 

   

Classified board. Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that the Board is classified into three classes of directors, each with staggered three-year terms. A third party may be discouraged from

 

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making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us as it is more difficult and time consuming for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors on a classified board of directors.

 

   

Stockholder action; special meetings of stockholders. Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to amend our Bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of our stockholders called in accordance with our Bylaws. Further, our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that, except as otherwise required by statute and subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of any series of preferred stock, special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority of the directors then in office, thus prohibiting a stockholder from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of our capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.

 

   

Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations. Our Bylaws provide advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. Our Bylaws also specify certain requirements regarding the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. These provisions might preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders if the proper procedures are not followed. We expect that these provisions might also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of Pardes.

 

   

No cumulative voting. The DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our Certificate of Incorporation does not provide for cumulative voting. Consequently, the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors have the right to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose.

 

   

Directors removed only for cause. Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that, subject to the rights of any series of preferred stock to elect directors and the terms of the Registration Rights Agreement and the Voting Agreement, stockholders may remove directors only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two thirds of all of our then-outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally at an election of directors.

 

   

Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation provisions. The amendment or repeal of the above provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation relating to stockholder actions and special meetings of stockholders and Board classification would require approval by holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote thereon and the affirmative vote of not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class. The amendment or repeal of the above provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation relating to Board vacancies and the removal of directors, as well as the amendment of our Certificate of Incorporation to provide for cumulative voting, would require approval by the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote on such amendment or repeal, and the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class, at a duly constituted meeting of stockholders called expressly for such purpose.

 

   

Issuance of undesignated preferred stock. The Board or any authorized committee thereof has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by the Board. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock would enable the Board to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other means.

 

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Choice of forum. Our Bylaws provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for state law claims for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees or our stockholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our Certificate of Incorporation or our Bylaws; (iv) and action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our Certificate of Incorporation or our Bylaws; or (v) any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation and bylaws has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable. Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Our Bylaws provide that the United States District Court for the Southern District of California will, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any action asserting a claim arising under the Securities Act (the “Federal Forum Provision”). While there can be no assurance that federal or state courts will follow the holding of the Delaware Supreme Court which recently found that such provisions are facially valid under Delaware law or determine that the Federal Forum Provision should be enforced in a particular case, application of the Federal Forum Provision means that suits brought by our stockholders to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act must be brought in federal court in California and cannot be brought in state court. Neither the exclusive forum provision nor the Federal Forum Provision applies to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all claims brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Accordingly, actions by our stockholders to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder also must be brought in federal court. Our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the regulations promulgated thereunder. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in any of our securities shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to our exclusive forum provisions, including the Federal Forum Provision. These provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of their choosing for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, or the underwriters of any offering giving rise to such dispute, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees and underwriters of any offering giving rise to such claims.

The combination of these provisions will make it more difficult for the existing stockholders to replace the Board as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing the Board. Because the Board has the power to retain and discharge its officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for the Board to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.

These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of the Board and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock.

Delaware Anti-Takeover Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL regulating corporate takeovers. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an

 

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“interested stockholder” for a period of three years following the date on which the person became an interested stockholder unless:

 

   

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, (i) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

at or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66.67% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Generally, a business combination includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction or series of transactions together resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns or, within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status, did own 15% or more of a corporation’s outstanding voting stock. We expect the existence of this provision to have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions that the Board does not approve in advance. We also anticipate that Section 203 may also discourage attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of common stock held by stockholders.

Limitations on Liability and Indemnification of Officers and Directors

The Certificate of Incorporation limits the liability of the directors of Pardes to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, and the Bylaws provide that we will indemnify them to the fullest extent permitted by such law. We have entered and expect to continue to enter into agreements to indemnify our directors, executive officers and other employees as determined by the Board. Under the terms of such indemnification agreements, we are required to indemnify each of our directors and officers, to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL if the basis of the indemnitee’s involvement was by reason of the fact that the indemnitee is or was a director or officer of Pardes or any of its subsidiaries or was serving at Pardes’ request in an official capacity for another entity. We must indemnify our officers and directors against all reasonable fees, expenses, charges and other costs of any type or nature whatsoever, including any and all expenses and obligations paid or incurred in connection with investigating, defending, being a witness in, participating in (including on appeal), or preparing to defend, be a witness or participate in any completed, actual, pending or threatened action, suit, claim or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, or establishing or enforcing a right to indemnification under the indemnification agreement. The indemnification agreements also require us, if so requested, to advance within thirty days of such request all reasonable fees, expenses, charges and other costs that such director or officer incurred, provided that such person will return any such advance if it is ultimately determined that such person is not entitled to indemnification by us. Any claims for indemnification by our directors and officers may reduce our available funds to satisfy successful third-party claims against us and may reduce the amount of money available to us.

The Nasdaq Global Market Listing

Our Common Stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “PRDS.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our Common Stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company. The address of the transfer agent and registrar is 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, New York 10004.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

General

We may issue the debt securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement under an indenture to be entered into between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of the debt securities will include those stated in the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We have filed a copy of the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement in which this prospectus is included. The indenture will be subject to and governed by the terms of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. We may offer under this prospectus up to an aggregate principal amount of $200.0 million in debt securities, or if debt securities are issued at a discount, or in a foreign currency, foreign currency units or composite currency, the principal amount as may be sold for an aggregate public offering price of up to $200.0 million. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will represent our direct, unsecured obligations and will rank equally with all of our other unsecured indebtedness.

We may issue the debt securities in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will describe the particular terms of each series of debt securities in a prospectus supplement relating to that series, which we will file with the SEC. The prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of debt securities being offered will specify the particular amounts, prices and terms of those debt securities. These terms may include:

 

   

the title of the series;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount, and, if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount outstanding;

 

   

the issue price or prices, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

any limit on the aggregate principal amount;

 

   

the date or dates on which principal is payable;

 

   

the interest rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which interest, if any, will be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable;

 

   

the place or places where principal and, if applicable, premium and interest, is payable;

 

   

the terms and conditions upon which we may, or the holders may require us to, redeem or repurchase the debt securities;

 

   

the denominations in which such debt securities may be issuable, if other than denominations of $1,000 or any integral multiple of that number;

 

   

whether the debt securities are to be issuable in the form of certificated securities (as described below) or global securities (as described below);

 

   

the portion of principal amount that will be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date if other than the principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the currency of denomination;

 

   

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal and, if applicable, premium and interest, will be made;

 

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if payments of principal and, if applicable, premium or interest, on the debt securities are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than the currency of denomination, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

   

if amounts of principal and, if applicable, premium and interest may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index, then the manner in which such amounts will be determined;

 

   

the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for such debt securities;

 

   

any addition to or change in the covenants and/or the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture;

 

   

any events of default, if not otherwise described below under “Events of Default”;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion into or exchange for shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

   

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents; and

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the debt securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to our other indebtedness.

We may issue discount debt securities that provide for an amount less than the stated principal amount to be due and payable upon acceleration of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture. We may also issue debt securities in bearer form, with or without coupons. If we issue discount debt securities or debt securities in bearer form, we will describe material U.S. federal income tax considerations and other material special considerations which apply to these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities denominated in or payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units. If we do, we will describe the restrictions, elections, and general tax considerations relating to the debt securities and the foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Debt securities offered under this prospectus and any prospectus supplement will be subordinated in right of payment to certain of our outstanding senior indebtedness. In addition, we will seek the consent of the holders of any such senior indebtedness prior to issuing any debt securities under this prospectus to the extent required by the agreements evidencing such senior indebtedness.

Registrar and Paying Agent

The debt securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange at the corporate trust office of the security registrar or at any other office or agency that we maintain for those purposes. In addition, the debt securities may be presented for payment of principal, interest and any premium at the office of the paying agent or at any office or agency that we maintain for those purposes.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

Debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our common stock. The terms and conditions of conversion or exchange will be stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include, among others, the following:

 

   

the conversion or exchange price;

 

   

the conversion or exchange period;

 

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provisions regarding the convertibility or exchangeability of the debt securities, including who may convert or exchange;

 

   

events requiring adjustment to the conversion or exchange price;

 

   

provisions affecting conversion or exchange in the event of our redemption of the debt securities; and

 

   

any anti-dilution provisions, if applicable.

Registered Global Securities

If we decide to issue debt securities in the form of one or more global securities, then we will register the global securities in the name of the depositary for the global securities or the nominee of the depositary, and the global securities will be delivered by the trustee to the depositary for credit to the accounts of the holders of beneficial interests in the debt securities.

The prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the depositary arrangement for debt securities of a series that are issued in global form. None of us, the trustee, any payment agent or the security registrar will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in a global debt security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to these beneficial ownership interests.

No Protection in the Event of Change of Control

The indenture does not have any covenants or other provisions providing for a put or increased interest or otherwise that would afford holders of our debt securities additional protection in the event of a recapitalization transaction, a change of control or a highly leveraged transaction. If we offer any covenants or provisions of this type with respect to any debt securities covered by this prospectus, we will describe them in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Covenants

Unless otherwise indicated in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement, our debt securities will not have the benefit of any covenants that limit or restrict our business or operations, the pledging of our assets or the incurrence by us of indebtedness. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any material covenants in respect of a series of debt securities.

Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets

The form of indenture provides that we will not consolidate with or merge into any other person or convey, transfer, sell or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, unless:

 

   

we are the surviving person of such merger or consolidation, or if we are not the surviving person, the person formed by the consolidation or into or with which we are merged or the person to which our properties and assets are conveyed, transferred, sold or leased, is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the U.S., any state or the District of Columbia or a corporation or comparable legal entity organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and has expressly assumed all of our obligations, including the payment of the principal of and, premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities and the performance of the other covenants under the indenture; and

 

   

immediately before and immediately after giving effect to the transaction on a pro forma basis, no event of default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an event of default, has occurred and is continuing under the indenture.

 

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Events of Default

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the following events will be events of default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of any series:

 

   

we fail to pay any principal or premium, if any, when it becomes due;

 

   

we fail to pay any interest within 30 days after it becomes due;

 

   

we fail to observe or perform any other covenant in the debt securities or the indenture for 90 days after written notice specifying the failure from the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series; and

 

   

certain events involving bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of us or any of our significant subsidiaries.

The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of the debt securities of any series of any default, except in payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities of a series, if the trustee considers it to be in the best interest of the holders of the debt securities of that series to do so.

If an event of default (other than an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) occurs, and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may accelerate the maturity of the debt securities. If this happens, the entire principal amount, plus the premium, if any, of all the outstanding debt securities of the affected series plus accrued interest to the date of acceleration will be immediately due and payable. At any time after the acceleration, but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series may rescind and annul such acceleration if:

 

   

all events of default (other than nonpayment of accelerated principal, premium or interest) have been cured or waived;

 

   

all lawful interest on overdue interest and overdue principal has been paid; and

 

   

the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree.

In addition, if the acceleration occurs at any time when we have outstanding indebtedness that is senior to the debt securities, the payment of the principal amount of outstanding debt securities may be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment of any amounts due under the senior indebtedness, in which case the holders of debt securities will be entitled to payment under the terms prescribed in the instruments evidencing the senior indebtedness and the indenture.

If an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occurs, the principal, premium and interest amount with respect to all of the debt securities of any series will be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or the holders of the debt securities of that series.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series will have the right to waive any existing default or compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities of that series and to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, subject to certain limitations specified in the indenture.

No holder of any debt security of a series will have any right to institute any proceeding with respect to the indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

the holder gives to the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

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the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series make a written request and offer reasonable indemnity to the trustee to institute a proceeding as trustee;

 

   

the trustee fails to institute a proceeding within 60 days after such request; and

 

   

the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series do not give the trustee a direction inconsistent with such request during such 60-day period.

These limitations do not, however, apply to a suit instituted for payment on debt securities of any series on or after the due dates expressed in the debt securities.

We will periodically deliver certificates to the trustee regarding our compliance with our obligations under the indenture.

Modification and Waiver

From time to time, we and the trustee may, without the consent of holders of the debt securities of one or more series, amend the indenture or the debt securities of one or more series, or supplement the indenture, for certain specified purposes, including:

 

   

to provide that the surviving entity following a change of control permitted under the indenture will assume all of our obligations under the indenture and debt securities;

 

   

to provide for certificated debt securities in addition to uncertificated debt securities;

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or make any other change that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any holder; and

 

   

to appoint a successor trustee under the indenture with respect to one or more series.

From time to time we and the trustee may, with the consent of holders of at least a majority in principal amount of an outstanding series of debt securities, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities series, or waive compliance in a particular instance by us with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities. We may not, however, without the consent of each holder affected by such action, modify or supplement the indenture or the debt securities or waive compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities in order to:

 

   

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement, or waiver to the indenture or such debt security;

 

   

reduce the rate of or change the time for payment of interest or reduce the amount of or postpone the date for payment of sinking fund or analogous obligations;

 

   

reduce the principal of or change the stated maturity of the debt securities;

 

   

make any debt security payable in money other than that stated in the debt security;

 

   

change the amount or time of any payment required or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;

 

   

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities or a redemption payment;

 

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waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt securities or change any provision with respect to redemption of debt securities; or

 

   

take any other action otherwise prohibited by the indenture to be taken without the consent of each holder affected by the action.

Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

The indenture permits us, at any time, to elect to discharge our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities by following certain procedures described in the indenture. These procedures will allow us either:

 

   

to defease and be discharged from any and all of our obligations with respect to any debt securities except for the following obligations (which discharge is referred to as “legal defeasance”):

 

  1.

to register the transfer or exchange of such debt securities;

 

  2.

to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities;

 

  3.

to compensate and indemnify the trustee; or

 

  4.

to maintain an office or agency in respect of the debt securities and to hold monies for payment in trust; or

 

   

to be released from our obligations with respect to the debt securities under certain covenants contained in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be contained in the applicable supplemental indenture (which release is referred to as “covenant defeasance”).

In order to exercise either defeasance option, we must irrevocably deposit with the trustee or other qualifying trustee, in trust for that purpose:

 

   

money;

 

   

U.S. Government Obligations (as described below) or Foreign Government Obligations (as described below) that through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money; or

 

   

a combination of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations sufficient in the written opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent accountants to provide money;

that, in each case specified above, provides a sufficient amount to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series, on the scheduled due dates or on a selected date of redemption in accordance with the terms of the indenture.

In addition, defeasance may be effected only if, among other things:

 

   

in the case of either legal or covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel, as specified in the indenture, stating that as a result of the defeasance neither the trust nor the trustee will be required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940;

 

   

in the case of legal defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that, or there has been a change in any applicable federal income tax law with the effect that (and the opinion shall confirm that), the holders of outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such legal defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if legal defeasance had not occurred;

 

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in the case of covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if covenant defeasance had not occurred; and

 

   

certain other conditions described in the indenture are satisfied.

If we fail to comply with our remaining obligations under the indenture and applicable supplemental indenture after a covenant defeasance of the indenture and applicable supplemental indenture, and the debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any undefeased event of default, the amount of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee could be insufficient to pay amounts due under the debt securities of the affected series at the time of acceleration. We will, however, remain liable in respect of these payments.

The term “U.S. Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means securities that are direct obligations of or non-callable obligations guaranteed by the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.

The term “Foreign Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means, with respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, (1) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (2) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agent or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by that government, which in either case under clauses (1) or (2), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer.

Regarding the Trustee

We will identify the trustee with respect to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the applicable debt securities. You should note that if the trustee becomes a creditor of ours, the indenture and the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 limit the rights of the trustee to obtain payment of claims in certain cases, or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee and its affiliates may engage in, and will be permitted to continue to engage in, other transactions with us and our affiliates. If, however, the trustee acquires any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of any series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy available to the trustee. If an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee, in the exercise of its rights and powers, must use the degree of care and skill of a prudent person in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to that provision, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the debt securities, unless they have offered to the trustee reasonable indemnity or security.

No Individual Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers or Directors

Each indenture provides that no incorporator and no past, present or future stockholder, officer or director of our company or any successor corporation in those capacities will have any individual liability for any of our obligations, covenants or agreements under the debt securities or such indenture.

Governing Law

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

General

We may issue warrants for the purchase of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, or any combination thereof. Warrants may be issued independently or together with our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants. The warrant agent will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants. This summary of certain provisions of the warrants is not complete. For the terms of a particular series of warrants, you should refer to the prospectus supplement for that series of warrants and the warrant agreement for that particular series.

Equity Warrants

The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants to purchase our common stock or preferred stock will describe the terms of the warrants, including the following:

 

   

the title of the warrants;

 

   

the offering price for the warrants, if any;

 

   

the aggregate number of warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any securities issued with the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant and the exercise price for the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and expire;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

   

the antidilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

   

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants;

 

   

any provisions with respect to a holder’s right to require us to repurchase the warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:

 

   

to vote, consent, or receive dividends;

 

   

receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

 

   

exercise any rights as stockholders.

 

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Debt Warrants

The prospectus supplement relating to a particular issue of warrants to purchase debt securities will describe the terms of the debt warrants, including the following:

 

   

the title of the debt warrants;

 

   

the offering price for the debt warrants, if any;

 

   

the aggregate number of the debt warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the debt securities, including any conversion rights, purchasable upon exercise of the debt warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the debt warrants and any debt securities issued with them will be separately transferable;

 

   

the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the debt warrants will commence and expire;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the debt warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

whether the debt warrants represented by the debt warrant certificates or debt securities that may be issued upon exercise of the debt warrants will be issued in registered or bearer form;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

   

the antidilution provisions of the debt warrants, if any;

 

   

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the debt warrants;

 

   

any provisions with respect to the holder’s right to require us to repurchase the debt warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

 

   

any additional terms of the debt warrants, including procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise, and settlement of the debt warrants.

Debt warrant certificates will be exchangeable for new debt warrant certificates of different denominations. Debt warrants may be exercised at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement. Prior to the exercise of their debt warrants, holders of debt warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the debt securities purchasable upon exercise and will not be entitled to payment of principal or any premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities purchasable upon exercise.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

We may issue subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. These subscription rights may be offered independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the stockholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.

The prospectus supplement relating to any subscription rights we offer, if any, will, to the extent applicable, include specific terms relating to the offering, including some or all of the following:

 

   

the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

 

   

the exercise price payable for our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of the subscription rights;

 

   

the number of subscription rights to be issued to each stockholder;

 

   

the number and terms of our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities which may be purchased per each subscription right;

 

   

the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

 

   

any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;

 

   

the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities or an over-allotment privilege to the extent the securities are fully subscribed; and

 

   

if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement which may be entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any subscription rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable subscription rights certificate, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer subscription rights. We urge you to read the applicable subscription rights certificate and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of some or all of the securities described above, in any combination, including common stock, preferred stock, warrants and/or debt securities. The terms of these units will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The description of the terms of these units in the related prospectus supplement will not be complete. You should refer to the applicable form of unit and unit agreement for complete information with respect to these units.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Fenwick & West LLP, San Francisco, California, will issue an opinion about certain legal matters with respect to the securities. Any underwriters or agents will be advised about legal matters relating to any offering by their own counsel.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Pardes Biosciences, Inc. as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and for the year ended December 31, 2021 and for the period from February 27, 2020 (inception) through December 31, 2020, have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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LOGO

Up to $200,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Subscription Rights

Units

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

                    , 2023

 

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus supplement is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated January 11, 2023

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus Dated                 , 2023)

Up to $50,000,000

 

 

LOGO

 

 

We have entered into a Sales Agreement, dated January 11, 2023 (the “Sales Agreement”), with SVB Securities LLC (“SVB Securities”), relating to shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“common stock”), offered by this prospectus supplement. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, under this prospectus supplement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50.0 million from time to time through or to SVB Securities acting as our sales agent or principal.

Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “PRDS.” On January 10, 2023, the last reported sales price for our common stock was $2.03 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). Subject to the terms of the Sales Agreement, SVB Securities is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with their normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between SVB Securities and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

SVB Securities will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate of up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross sales price per share sold. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, SVB Securities will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to SVB Securities will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-15 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to SVB Securities. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to SVB Securities with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).

We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” under the federal securities laws and, as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus supplement and related base prospectus and for future filings.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should review carefully and consider all the information set forth in this prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

SVB Securities

The date of this prospectus supplement is                     , 2023.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

About this Prospectus Supplement

     S-1  

Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference

     S-3  

Prospectus Supplement Summary

     S-5  

The Offering

     S-7  

Risk Factors

     S-8  

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     S-11  

Use of Proceeds

     S-13  

Dilution

     S-14  

Plan of Distribution

     S-15  

Legal Matters

     S-16  

Experts

     S-16  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities, in any combination, having an aggregate offering price of up to $200.0 million. Under this prospectus supplement, we may from time to time offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50.0 million, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. The $50.0 million of shares of common stock that may be sold under this prospectus supplement are included in the $200.0 million of securities that may be sold under our shelf registration statement. 

We provide information to you about this offering of shares of our common stock in two separate documents: (1) this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific details regarding this offering; and (2) the base prospectus referred to on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, which provides general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer to the “prospectus,” we are referring to both documents combined. If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the base prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement filed prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. However, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement —the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the earlier dates.

We have not, and SVB Securities has not, authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying base prospectus or in any related free writing prospectus to which we have referred you. We and SVB Securities take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information others may give you. We are not, and SVB Securities is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the section of this prospectus supplement captioned “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the offering of our common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement outside the United States. This prospectus supplement does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

We obtained the industry and market data in this prospectus supplement and the base prospectus from our own research as well as from industry and general publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. These

 

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data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate is necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

In this prospectus supplement, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Pardes,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Pardes Biosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein may contain additional trade names, trademarks and service marks of other companies, which are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other companies.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.

Our web site address is www.pardesbio.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus supplement.

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and does not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement, and information we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. A Current Report (or portion thereof) furnished, but not filed, on Form 8-K shall not be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of any offering of securities made by this prospectus supplement:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 29, 2022;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2022 (as filed with the SEC on May 10, 2022), June  30, 2022 (as filed with the SEC on August 15, 2022), and September  30, 2022 (as filed with the SEC on November 7, 2022);

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 28, 2022, March  2, 2022, June  9, 2022, June  10, 2022, September  13, 2022, September  14, 2022, and October 17, 2022;

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A/A (File No. 001-40067), filed with the SEC under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act on December 23, 2021, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

   

all reports and other documents we subsequently file with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement, of which this prospectus supplement is a part, and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement.

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and deemed to be part of this prospectus supplement from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of such documents that has been incorporated herein by reference (other than exhibits to such documents unless such exhibits are specifically

 

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incorporated by reference into the documents that this prospectus supplement incorporates). Written or oral requests for copies should be directed to Pardes Biosciences, Inc., Attn: Investor Relations, 2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 250, PMB#052, Carlsbad, CA 92008, telephone (415) 649-8758.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part. See the section titled “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing novel oral anti-viral therapeutics to improve the lives of patients suffering from life-threatening disease, starting with our lead product candidate, PBI-0451, which is in clinical development and intended to treat and prevent COVID-19 in adult and pediatric patients. COVID-19 is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has emerged as the most significant pandemic threat to the world in many decades. We have built a discovery platform designed to target reactive nucleophiles, such as those in cysteine proteases. By leveraging our understanding of structure-based drug design, reversible covalent chemistry and viral biology, we have discovered and are developing novel product candidates with low nanomolar potency against SARS-CoV-2 and broad activity against all known pathogenic human coronaviruses. Our lead product candidate, PBI-0451, inhibits the main coronaviral cysteine protease (Mpro), a viral protein essential for replication of all known coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In preclinical studies, PBI-0451 has demonstrated activity against all coronaviral proteases tested to date, as well as inhibition of replication of multiple coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 clinical variants of concern, including those in the Omicron-lineage. In preclinical studies, PBI-0451 demonstrated the potential for oral bioavailability across multiple preclinical species. More recently, it has demonstrated oral bioavailability in healthy volunteers in our Phase 1 clinical trials. We believe the anti-viral potency seen against SARS-CoV-2 in preclinical in vitro studies and demonstrated oral bioavailability in humans supports PBI-0451’s potential to be an oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) for use against COVID-19.

We plan to develop PBI-0451 for both oral treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 in adult and pediatric patients. Given the highly conserved nature of the Mpro target, which is shared among all known coronaviruses, we believe PBI-0451 will likely continue to retain its potency and activity against current and most emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

Following productive discussions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), we commenced a Phase 2 clinical trial in September 2022 (NCT 05543707), evaluating PBI-0451 for the treatment of COVID-19. Data from the Phase 2 clinical trial is expected in the first quarter of 2023. During the pendency of our Phase 2 clinical trial, we will continue to engage in discussions with the FDA and other global regulatory authorities regarding our clinical development program for PBI-0451, including clinical design, patient populations, endpoints (primary and secondary), comparator, and other key study design elements for our potential Phase 3 clinical trials. Subject to Phase 2 clinical trial results and continued discussions with the FDA and global regulatory authorities, we are currently planning to initiate our Phase 3 program in the first half of 2023.

Since our inception in 2020, we have devoted substantially all our efforts and financial resources to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, discovering product candidates, preparing and filing related patent applications and conducting research and development activities for our product candidates. We have not yet successfully completed any Phase 2 clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of any of our product

 

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candidates, including PBI-0451, nor have we obtained any regulatory approvals, manufactured a commercial-scale drug, or conducted sales and marketing activities. We do not have any products approved for sale and we have not generated any revenue from product sales.

Corporate Information

We were initially a blank check or special purpose acquisition company called FS Development Corp. II (“FSDC II”), incorporated in Delaware on August 21, 2020, formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses or entities. On December 23, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), FSDC II, Pardes Biosciences, Inc. prior to the Closing Date (“Old Pardes”) and Orchard Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of FSDC II prior to the Closing Date (“Merger Sub”) consummated a business combination pursuant to the terms of the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of June 29, 2021 (as amended on November 7, 2021) by and among FSDC II, Merger Sub, Old Pardes and Shareholder Representative Services LLC (the “Merger Agreement”).

On the day prior to the Closing Date, Old Pardes changed its name to “Pardes Biosciences Sub, Inc.” Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, on the Closing Date, (i) FSDC II changed its name to “Pardes Biosciences, Inc.” and (ii) Old Pardes and Merger Sub consummated the merger of Old Pardes with and into Merger Sub pursuant to the Merger Agreement, with Old Pardes as the surviving company (the “Merger”) and, after giving effect to such Merger, Old Pardes becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pardes Biosciences, Inc. (f/k/a FS Development Corp. II). Old Pardes was merged with and into Pardes on January 31, 2022.

Our corporate mailing address for our principal executive office is 2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 250, PMB#052, Carlsbad, CA 92008, and our telephone number is 415-649-8758. Our website address is http://pardesbio.com. The information contained in or accessible from our website is not incorporated into this prospectus supplement, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus supplement. We have included our website address in this prospectus supplement solely as an inactive textual reference. Investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.

 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50.0 million.

 

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

Up to 86,951,465 shares of common stock (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 24,630,541 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $2.03 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common shares on The Nasdaq Global Market on January 10, 2023. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the number of shares that are sold and the sales price under this offering.

 

Plan of Distribution

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent or principal, SVB Securities. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-15.

 

Use of Proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include funding the continued progress of our preclinical and clinical development, research and development costs, potential strategic acquisitions or licensing of complementary businesses, services or technologies, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See the disclosure under the heading “Risk Factors” on page S-8 in this prospectus supplement and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

 

The Nasdaq Global Market symbol

“PRDS”

The number of our shares of common stock shown above to be outstanding after this offering is based on 62,320,924 shares of our common stock outstanding and excludes the following, all as of September 30, 2022:

 

   

9,810,627 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options as of September 30, 2022, with a weighted-average exercise price of $6.11 per share; and

 

   

7,800,666 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance as of September 30, 2022 under our stock-based compensation plans, consisting of (i) 7,225,666 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2021 Stock Option and Incentive Plan (the “2021 SIP”) and (ii) 575,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2022 Inducement Plan (the “2022 Inducement Plan”).

Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus supplement does not assume or give effect to any grant of options, exercise of outstanding options or repurchase by the Company of unvested restricted stock from former employees after September 30, 2022.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below and discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, and in our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus supplement or the related base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, political, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Risks Relating to this Offering

If you purchase shares of our common stock sold in this offering, you may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares. In addition, we may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to you.

The price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 24,630,541 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $2.03 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on January 10, 2023, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $50.0 million, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, new investors would not suffer any immediate dilution. However, if a new investor purchases shares to be sold in this offering at a per share price above the adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock, you could suffer immediate and substantial dilution. Such dilution would equal the difference between the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock and the offering price. For a more detailed discussion of the foregoing, see the section titled “Dilution” below. To the extent outstanding stock options are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors. In addition, to the extent we need to raise additional capital in the future and we issue additional shares of common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock, our then-existing stockholders may experience dilution and the new securities may have rights senior to those of our common stock offered in this offering. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in any future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use the proceeds effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section titled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management might not apply our net proceeds in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus supplement, if any, for general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include funding the continued progress of our preclinical and clinical development, research and development costs, potential strategic acquisitions or licensing of complementary businesses, services or technologies, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. The failure by our

 

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management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term or long-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

The actual number of shares we will issue under the Sales Agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to SVB Securities at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares to be sold set forth in the placement notice delivered by us and the number of shares that are sold through SVB Securities after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the market price of our common stock during the sales period, any limits we may set with SVB Securities in any applicable placement notice and the demand for our common stock. Because the price per share of each share sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will fluctuate over time, it is not currently possible to predict the aggregate proceeds to be raised in connection with sales under the Sales Agreement.

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, price, and number of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

Because we have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our common stock, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.

We have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our common stock. The declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors. Our board of directors may take into account general economic conditions, our financial condition and operating results, our available cash, current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax and regulatory restrictions, implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. Accordingly, we may not pay any dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. As a result, you may only receive a return on your investment in our common stock if the market price of our common stock increases.

The future sales of shares by existing stockholders and future exercise of registration rights may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our shares of common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our shares of common stock. We cannot predict what effect, if any, sales of our shares in the public market or the availability of shares for sale will have on the market price of our common stock. However, future sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, including shares issued upon exercise of outstanding options, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Moreover, as restrictions on resale end and the registration statements (that we have filed following the closing date of our business combination to provide for the resale of such shares from time to time) are available for use, the market price of our shares of common stock could decline if the holders of currently restricted shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them.

 

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The price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile.

We cannot predict the prices at which our common stock will continue to trade. The price of our common stock may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including:

 

   

changes in the industries in which we and our customers operate;

 

   

variations in our operating performance and the performance of our competitors in general;

 

   

material and adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the markets and the broader global economy;

 

   

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;

 

   

publication of research reports by securities analysts about us, our competitors or our industry;

 

   

the public’s reaction to our press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC;

 

   

our failure or the failure of our competitors to meet analysts’ projections or guidance that we or our competitors may give to the market;

 

   

additions and departures of key personnel;

 

   

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

 

   

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;

 

   

changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

 

   

the impact of rising interest rates and inflation;

 

   

the volume of shares of our common stock available for public sale; and

 

   

general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, inflation rates, fuel prices, foreign currency fluctuations, international tariffs, social, political and economic risks and acts of war or terrorism, including geopolitical instability caused by the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

These market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of share of our common stock regardless of our operating performance. In the past, stockholders have filed securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business and seriously harm our business.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our or our management team’s expectations, hopes, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future, including those relating to the success, cost and timing of our product development activities and clinical trials, the potential attributes and benefits of our product candidates, our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval for our product candidates and our ability to obtain funding for our operations. In addition, any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking.

Forward-looking statements relating to Pardes in this prospectus supplement include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations, financial results and liquidity and capital resources, including due to the pandemic’s impact on our research and development activities, clinical trials and employees;

 

   

the ability of our clinical trials to demonstrate acceptable safety and efficacy of our product candidates, including PBI-0451, our lead product candidate, and other positive results;

 

   

the timing, progress and results of clinical trials for PBI-0451 and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work;

 

   

the period during which the results of the clinical trials will become available;

 

   

the initiation, timing, progress, results and costs of our research and development programs and our current and future preclinical studies, nonclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

   

our ability to initiate, recruit and enroll patients in and conduct our clinical trials at the pace that we project;

 

   

the timing, scope and likelihood of regulatory filings;

 

   

our ability to obtain emergency use authorization or marketing approval of PBI-0451 and any future product candidates on expected timelines and to meet existing or future regulatory standards or comply with post-authorization or post-approval requirements;

 

   

our expectations regarding the potential market size, government stockpiling and the size of the patient populations for our product candidates, if approved for commercial use;

 

   

the performance of third parties in connection with the development of our product candidates, including third-party suppliers and manufacturers;

 

   

our intellectual property position and expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection;

 

   

our ability to identify additional products, product candidates or technologies with significant commercial potential that are consistent with our commercial objectives;

 

   

our expected future growth;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future financial performance and capital requirements;

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations in the United States and foreign countries;

 

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our competitive position and expectations regarding developments and projections relating to our competitors and any competing therapies that are or become available;

 

   

developments and expectations regarding our industry; and

 

   

other risks and uncertainties indicated in this prospectus supplement, including those detailed under “Risk Factors.”

The forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement are based on current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that we have anticipated. We cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement, any accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein will prove to be accurate. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise, except as required by law.

Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified and some of which are beyond our control, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this prospectus supplement, the events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. You should refer to the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements.

You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and such statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell our shares of common stock having aggregate gross proceeds of up to $50.0 million from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the Sales Agreement with SVB Securities as a source of financing.

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus supplement for general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include funding the continued progress of our preclinical and clinical development, research and development costs, potential strategic acquisitions or licensing of complementary businesses, services or technologies, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes.

The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our clinical trials and other development efforts and other factors described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds. In accordance with our investment policy statement, we may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government, until they are used for their stated purpose.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

Our net tangible book value of our common stock as of September 30, 2022 was approximately $202.0 million, or approximately $3.24 per share of common stock based upon 62,320,924 shares of our common stock outstanding as of such date. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less our total liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding as of September 30, 2022.

After giving effect to the assumed sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million at an assumed offering price of $2.03 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on January 10, 2023, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2022 would have been $250.1 million, or $2.88 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate decrease in net tangible book value of $0.36 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.85 per share to new investors in this offering.

The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis. The as-adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The as-adjusted information assumes that all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million is sold at the assumed offering price of $2.03 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on January 10, 2023. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 2.03  

Net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2022

   $ 3.24     

Decrease in net tangible book value per share attributable to the offering

   $ 0.36     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2022 after giving effect to the offering

      $ 2.88  
     

 

 

 

Increase in net tangible book value per share to new investors participating in the offering

      $ 0.85  
     

 

 

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 62,320,924 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2022, and excludes the following, all as of September 30, 2022:

 

   

9,810,627 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options as of September 30, 2022, with a weighted-average exercise price of $6.11 per share; and

 

   

7,800,666 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance as of September 30, 2022 under our stock-based compensation plans, consisting of (i) 7,225,666 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2021 SIP and (ii) 575,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2022 Inducement Plan.

The foregoing table does not give effect to any exercise of outstanding options after September 30, 2022. To the extent options are exercised, there may be further dilution to new investors.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a Sales Agreement with SVB Securities under which we may issue and sell up to $50.0 million of our common stock from time to time through or to SVB Securities acting as our sales agent or principal.

Upon delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, SVB Securities may sell our common stock by any method permitted by law and deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act. We may instruct SVB Securities not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above a minimum price designated by us from time to time. We or SVB Securities may suspend the offering of common stock under the Sales Agreement upon proper notice and subject to other conditions.

We will pay SVB Securities commissions, in cash, for its services in acting as agent in the sale of our common stock. SVB Securities will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate equal to up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of any shares of common stock sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. Pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement, we have also agreed to reimburse SVB Securities for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of its legal counsel, in an amount not to exceed $75,000. Additionally, pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement, we agreed to reimburse SVB Securities for the documented fees and costs of its legal counsel reasonably incurred in connection with SVB Securities’ ongoing diligence arising from the transactions contemplated by the Sales Agreement in an amount not to exceed $15,000 per calendar quarter. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation and reimbursement payable to SVB Securities under the terms of the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $450,000.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and SVB Securities in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of the Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and SVB Securities may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

SVB Securities will use its commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal sales and trading practices, to solicit offers to purchase the common stock under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Sales Agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, SVB Securities will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of SVB Securities will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to SVB Securities against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

This offering of our common stock pursuant to Sales Agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) sale of all shares of our common stock subject to this prospectus supplement or (2) the termination of the Sales Agreement as permitted therein. We and SVB Securities may each terminate the Sales Agreement at any time upon prior written notice.

Any portion of the common stock included in this prospectus supplement that is not previously sold or included in an active placement notice pursuant to the Sales Agreement is available for sale in other offerings pursuant to our registration statement, of which this prospectus supplement forms a part, and the accompanying base prospectus.

Our common stock is listed and traded on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “PRDS.” The transfer agent and registrar of our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Fenwick & West LLP, San Francisco, California, will issue an opinion about certain legal matters with respect to the securities. SVB Securities is being represented in connection with this offering by Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., Boston, Massachusetts.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Pardes Biosciences, Inc. as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and for the year ended December 31, 2021 and for the period from February 27, 2020 (inception) through December 31, 2020, have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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Up to $50,000,000

shares of Common Stock

 

LOGO

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

SVB Securities

                    , 2023

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth estimated expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered hereby. Each item listed is estimated, except for the SEC registration fee and FINRA filing fee.

 

SEC registration fee

     $ 22,040

FINRA filing fee

       30,500

Printing and engraving*

       *

Legal fees and expenses*

       *

Accounting fees and expenses*

       *

Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses*

       *

Miscellaneous expenses*

       *
    

 

 

 

Total*

     $ *  

 

*

These fees and expenses depend on the type of securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15.

Indemnification of Officers and Directors

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers under certain circumstances and subject to certain limitations. The terms of Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law are sufficiently broad to permit indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement of expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).

As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant’s second amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that eliminate the personal liability of its directors for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duties as a director, except liability for the following:

 

   

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Registrant or its stockholders;

 

   

acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

   

under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (regarding unlawful dividends or stock purchases); or

 

   

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant’s amended and restated bylaws provide that:

 

   

the Registrant is required to indemnify its directors and executive officers to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to limited exceptions;

 

   

the Registrant may indemnify its other employees and agents as set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law;

 

   

the Registrant is required to advance expenses, as incurred, to its directors in connection with a legal proceeding to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to limited exceptions;

 

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the Registrant may advance expenses, as incurred, to its executive officers and other employees in connection with a legal proceeding to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to limited exceptions; and

 

   

the rights conferred in the amended and restated bylaws are not exclusive.

The Registrant has entered, and intends to continue to enter, into indemnification agreements with each of its directors and executive officers to provide these directors and executive officers additional contractual assurances regarding the scope of the indemnification set forth in the Registrant’s second amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws and to provide additional procedural protections. At present, there is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director or executive officer of the Registrant for which indemnification is sought. The indemnification provisions in the Registrant’s second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and the indemnification agreements entered into or to be entered into between the Registrant and each of its directors and executive officers may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of the Registrant’s directors and executive officers for liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

The Registrant currently carries liability insurance for its directors and officers.

Item 16.

Exhibits

The exhibits listed below are filed (except where otherwise indicated) as part of this Registration Statement.

 

          Incorporated by Reference  
Exhibit
Number
  

Exhibit Description

   Form      File No.      Exhibit      Filing
Date
     Filed
Herewith
 
    1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement               
    1.2    Sales Agreement, dated as of January 11, 2023, by and between Pardes Biosciences, Inc. and SVB Securities LLC.                  X  
    2.1†    Merger Agreement, dated as of June  29, 2021, by and among Pardes Biosciences, Inc., Shareholder Representative Services LLC, FS Development Corp. II, and Orchard Merger Sub, Inc.      Form S-4        333-258442       

Annex A
to Proxy
Statement

 
 
     08/04/2021     
    2.2    Amendment No. 1 to Merger Agreement, dated as of November  7, 2021, by and among Pardes Biosciences, Inc., Shareholder Representative Services LLC, FS Development Corp. II, and Orchard Merger Sub, Inc.      Form 8-K        001-40067        2.1        11/09/2021     
    3.1    Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of FS Development Corp. II      Form 8-A12B/A        001-40067        3.1        12/23/2021     

 

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          Incorporated by Reference  
Exhibit
Number
  

Exhibit Description

   Form      File No.      Exhibit      Filing
Date
     Filed
Herewith
 
    3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of Pardes Biosciences, Inc.      Form 8-A12B/A        001-40067        3.2        12/23/2021     
    4.1    Form of Specimen Common Stock Certificate      Form S-4/A        333-258442        4.1        11/17/2021     
    4.2    Registration Rights Agreement, dated December  23, 2021, by and among Pardes Biosciences, Inc. and the stockholders party thereto      Form 8-A12B/A        001-40067        10.1        12/23/2021     
    4.3    Voting Agreement, dated December 23, 2021, by and among Pardes Biosciences, Inc. and the other parties thereto      Form 8-K        001-40067        10.2        12/30/2021     
    4.4    Form of Debt Security                  X  
    4.5    Form of Indenture                  X  
    4.6*    Form of Warrant               
    4.7*    Form of Warrant Agreement               
    4.8*    Form of Certificate of Designations of Preferred Stock               
    4.9*    Form of Preferred Stock Certificate               
    4.10*    Form of Subscription Rights Certificate               
    4.11*    Form of Subscription Rights Agreement               
    4.12*    Form of Unit               
    4.13*    Form of Unit Agreement               
    5.1    Legal Opinion of Fenwick & West LLP                  X  
  23.1    Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm                  X  
  23.2    Consent of Fenwick & West LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)                  X  
  24.1    Power of Attorney (included on the signature page hereto)                  X  
  25.1**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939               
  25.2**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939               
107.1    Filing Fee Table                  X  

 

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*

To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as amended and incorporated herein by reference.

**

To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.

 

Item 17.

Undertakings

(a) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

(ii) to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement; provided, however, that subparagraphs (i), (ii), and (iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the

 

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registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

(iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and

(iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

(b) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers, and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore,

unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer, or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit, or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer, or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

(d) If and when applicable, the Registrant hereby further undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Carlsbad, State of California, on the 11th day of January, 2023.

 

PARDES BIOSCIENCES, INC.
By:   /s/ Thomas G. Wiggans
  Thomas G. Wiggans
  Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Thomas G. Wiggans and Heidi Henson, and each of them, as his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents, each with full power of substitution, for him or her in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement (including post-effective amendments or any abbreviated registration statement and any amendments thereto filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) increasing the number of securities for which registration is sought), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents, or their or his or her substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Name    Title   Date

/s/ Thomas G. Wiggans

Thomas G. Wiggans

  

Chief Executive Officer

(Principal Executive Officer)

  January 11, 2023

/s/ Heidi Henson

Heidi Henson

  

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

  January 11, 2023

/s/ Mark Auerbach

Mark Auerbach

   Director   January 11, 2023

/s/ Deborah M. Autor

Deborah M. Autor

   Director   January 11, 2023

/s/ Laura J. Hamill

Laura J. Hamill

   Director   January 11, 2023

/s/ J. Jay Lobell

J. Jay Lobell

   Director   January 11, 2023

/s/ Uri A. Lopatin, M.D.

Uri A. Lopatin, M.D.

   Director   January 11, 2023


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Name    Title   Date

/s/ John C. Pottage, Jr., M.D.

John C. Pottage, Jr., M.D.

   Director   January 11, 2023

/s/ Laurie Smaldone Alsup, M.D.

Laurie Smaldone Alsup, M.D.

   Director   January 11, 2023

/s/ James B. Tananbaum, M.D.

James B. Tananbaum, M.D.

   Director   January 11, 2023

/s/ Michael D. Varney, Ph.D.

Michael D. Varney, Ph.D.

   Director   January 11, 2023
EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

Pardes Biosciences, Inc.

Shares of Common Stock

($0.0001 par value per share)

SALES AGREEMENT

January 11, 2023

SVB SECURITIES LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Pardes Biosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with SVB Securities LLC (the “Agent”), as follows:

1.    Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through or to the Agent, as sales agent or principal, up to $50,000,000 of shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Common Stock”), subject to the limitations set forth in Section 5(c) (the “Placement Shares”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 and in Section 5(c) as to the aggregate gross sales price and total number of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Placement Shares through the Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) to be filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on January 11, 2023 and after the Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Commission, although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to issue any Placement Shares.

The Company has prepared and will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including (a) a base prospectus relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company (the “Base Prospectus”), which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”), and (b) a prospectus supplement to the Base Prospectus specifically relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time pursuant to this Agreement (the “Prospectus Supplement”). The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by the Agent, copies of the Base Prospectus at the time it becomes effective, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The Base


Prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such Base Prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus” (as used herein, as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act (“Rule 433”)), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case, in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.”

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, that are or are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the respective dates of the Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or such issuer free writing prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System or, if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

2.    Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell any Placement Shares through the Agent hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (each such notice, a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires such Placement Shares to be sold, which at a minimum shall include the maximum number or dollar amount of Placement Shares to be sold, the time period during which such sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice must originate from one of the individuals authorized to act on behalf of the Company and set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such Schedule 2), and shall be addressed to each of the recipients from the Agent set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be updated by either party from time to time by sending a written notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply). The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by the Agent unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, within two Trading Days of the date the Agent receives the Placement Notice, (ii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent suspends sales under the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (iii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares has been sold pursuant to this Agreement, (iv) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends sales under or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (v) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice and explicitly indicates that its parameters supersede those contained in the earlier dated Placement Notice or (vi) this Agreement has been terminated pursuant to the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares effected through the Agent shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth

 

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in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agent and the Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control with respect to the matters covered thereby.

3.    Sale of Placement Shares by the Agent. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, including Section 5(c), upon the Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice as provided in Section 2, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Global Market (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the number or amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice. The Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number or amount of Placement Shares sold on such Trading Day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. Unless otherwise specified by the Company in a Placement Notice, the Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through Nasdaq, on or through any other existing trading market for the Common Stock or to or through a market maker. If expressly authorized by the Company (including in a Placement Notice), the Agent may also sell Placement Shares in negotiated transactions. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 6(tt), except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Agent, the Agent shall not purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of Nasdaq to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Common Stock is purchased and sold on Nasdaq.

4.    Suspension of Sales.

(a)    The Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other party unless notice is sent by one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals

 

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of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply).

(b)    Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is, or could reasonably be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, the Company and the Agent agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares and shall cancel any effective Placement Notices instructing the Agent to make any sales and (iii) the Agent shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

5.    Settlement and Delivery of the Placement Shares.

(a)    Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice or as is required for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate gross sales price received by the Agent at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction of (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to the Agent hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) hereof and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

(b)    Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will issue the Placement Shares being sold on such date and will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer such Placement Shares by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto, which in all cases shall be duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares of Common Stock in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on or prior to the Settlement Date. The Agent shall be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or other instructions for delivery by other means with regard to the transfer of the Placement Shares being sold. In addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) hereto, the Company agrees that if the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered Placement Shares in good deliverable form by 2:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Settlement Date (other than as a result of a failure by the Agent to provide instructions for delivery), the Company will (i) take all necessary action to cause the full amount of any Net Proceeds that were delivered to the Company’s account with respect to such settlement, together with any costs incurred by the Agent and/or its clearing firm in connection with recovering such Net Proceeds, to be immediately returned to the Agent or its clearing firm no later than 5:00 P.M., New York City time, on such Settlement Date, by wire transfer of immediately available funds to an account designated by the Agent or its clearing firm, (ii) indemnify and hold the Agent and its clearing firm harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (iii) pay to the Agent any commission, discount or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Agent may request in writing one Business Day (as defined below) before the applicable Settlement Date. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Agent in New York City not later than 12:00 P.M., New York City time, on the Business Day prior to the applicable Settlement Date.

 

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(c)    Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate number or gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of: (i) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered pursuant to, and available for offer and sale under, the Registration Statement pursuant to which the offering of Placement Shares is being made, (ii) the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock of the Company (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (iii) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be offered and sold by the Company under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6. thereof, if such instruction is applicable), (iv) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock that the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof has approved for issue and sale from time to time, and which has been communicated to the Agent in writing, or (v) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed the Prospectus Supplement. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof, and communicated to the Agent in writing. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto acknowledge and agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 5(c) on the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.

6.    Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agent that as of the date of this Agreement, and as of (i) each Representation Date (as defined in Section 7(m)) for which no waiver is in effect, (ii) each date on which a Placement Notice is given, (iii) the date and time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and (iv) each Settlement Date (each such time or date referred to in clauses (i) through (iv), an “Applicable Time”), except as may be disclosed in the Prospectus (including any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements thereto) prior to an Applicable Time:

(a)    The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the conditions for the use of Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and either I.B.1. or I.B.6, as applicable) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement will be filed with the Commission and will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notices by the Company. At the time the Registration Statement will become effective, the Company will meet the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and either I.B.1. or I.B.6, as applicable) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement meets, and the offering and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby comply with, the requirements of Rule 415(a)(1)(x) under the Securities Act. The Agent is named as the agent engaged by the Company in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus Supplement. The Company has not received, and has no notice from the Commission of, any notice pursuant to Rule 401(g)(1) under the Securities Act objecting to the use of the shelf registration statement form. No stop order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, or the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, has been issued, and no proceedings for such purpose are pending before or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened by the Commission. At the time of the initial filing of the Registration Statement, the Company will pay the required Commission filing fees relating to the securities covered by the Registration Statement, including the Placement Shares that may be sold pursuant to this Agreement, in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any such amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing and all Incorporated Documents that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to the Agent and its counsel.

 

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(b)    Each of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective, at each deemed effective date with respect to the Agent pursuant to Rule 430B(f)(2) under the Securities Act and as of each Applicable Time, complied, complies and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and did not, does not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agent’s Information (as defined below). The Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto, when so filed with the Commission under Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, complied, complies and as of each Applicable Time will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act, and each Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or issuer free writing prospectus (or any amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing) furnished to the Agent for use in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares was identical to the electronically transmitted copies thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T. Neither the Prospectus nor any amendment or supplement thereto, as of its date and as of each Applicable Time, included, includes or will include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted, omits or will omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agents’ Information or to any statements or omissions made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Agent’s Information. Each Incorporated Document heretofore filed, when it was filed (or, if any amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), conformed in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act and were filed on a timely basis with the Commission, and any further Incorporated Documents so filed and incorporated after the date of this Agreement will be filed on a timely basis and, when so filed, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act; no such Incorporated Document when it was filed (or, if an amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and no such Incorporated Document, when it is filed, will contain an untrue statement of a material fact or will omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(c)    (i) At the time of filing the Registration Statement and (ii) at the time of the execution of this Agreement (with such date being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause (ii)), the Company was not and is not an “ineligible issuer” (as defined in Rule 405), without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an ineligible issuer.

(d)    The Company is, and since December 23, 2021 has been, an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”).

(e)    Each issuer free writing prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time, did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any Incorporated Document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. Each issuer free writing prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433 or that was prepared by or on behalf of or used by the Company complies or will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act.

(f)    The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the Agent’s distribution of the Placement Shares under this Agreement, will not distribute

 

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any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below).

(g)    The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(h)    The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is listed on Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. The Company is in compliance with the current listing standards of Nasdaq. The Company has filed a Notification of Listing of Additional Shares with Nasdaq with respect to the Placement Shares.

(i)    No person (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act) has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares hereunder, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby or otherwise. Except for the Agent, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company or any of its Subsidiaries (as defined below) any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(j)    The Company has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and has corporate power and authority to acquire, own, lease and operate its properties, and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement. The Company is duly qualified to transact business as a foreign corporation and is in good standing in the State of California and under the laws of each other jurisdiction that requires such qualification, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or in good standing would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, results of operations, business, properties, operations, assets or liabilities of the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole (a “Material Adverse Effect”).

(k)    Each of the Company’s “subsidiaries” (for purposes of this Agreement, as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) (each, a “Subsidiary” and collectively, the “Subsidiaries”) has been duly organized and is validly existing in good standing (where such concept exists) under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization and has full power and authority to acquire, own, lease and operate its properties, and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. Each Subsidiary is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing (where such concept exists) under the laws of each jurisdiction that requires such qualification, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or in good standing would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. All of the issued and outstanding share capital or other equity or ownership interests of each Subsidiary has been duly authorized and validly issued, is fully paid and nonassessable, has been issued in compliance with federal state and securities laws and is owned by the Company, directly or through other wholly-owned Subsidiaries, free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance or adverse claim. The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association

 

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or other entity other than (i) those Subsidiaries not required to be listed on Exhibit 21.1 by Item 601 of Regulation S-K under the Exchange Act and (ii) those Subsidiaries formed since the last day of the most recently ended fiscal year. No Subsidiary is prohibited or restricted, directly or indirectly, from paying dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution with respect to such Subsidiary’s equity securities, from repaying to the Company or any other Subsidiary any amounts that may from time to time become due under any loans or advances to such Subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any property or assets to the Company or to any other Subsidiary.

(l)    The Company has the authorized and outstanding capitalization as set forth in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the most recent fiscal year or, if later, the Company’s quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the most recent fiscal quarter, as applicable, as of the dates referred to therein (subject, in each case, to the issuance of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of share options and warrants disclosed as outstanding as of the date hereof in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and the grant of options under existing share option plans described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus). The Common Stock conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, including under the heading “Description of Capital Stock.” All of the issued and outstanding share capital or other equity or ownership interest of the Company (including the Common Stock) has been duly authorized and validly issued and is fully paid and nonassessable, has been issued in compliance with all federal, state and local securities laws and is free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance or adverse claim. None of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company were issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company. Except as described in or expressly contemplated by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no authorized or outstanding options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase or subscribe for, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any share capital of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which any of them may be bound. The descriptions of the Company’s equity incentive plan, stock option plans and other stock plans or arrangements described in the Prospectus and in effect as of the date hereof (collectively, the “Stock Plans”) and the options or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus accurately and fairly present in all material respects the information required to be shown with respect to such Stock Plans and the options or other rights granted thereunder.

(m)    The Placement Shares have been duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and will conform in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby shall not be subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase the Placement Shares. When issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, the purchasers of the Placement Shares issued and sold hereunder will acquire good, marketable and valid title to such Placement Shares, free and clear of all pledges, liens, security interests, charges, claims or encumbrances. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby will not cause any holder of any share capital, securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for share capital or options, warrants or other rights to purchase share capital or any other securities of the Company to have any right to acquire any preferred shares of the Company. There are no restrictions upon the voting or transfer of the Common Stock under the Company’s second amended and restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws or any agreement or other instrument to which the Company is a party or otherwise filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement.

(n)    There is no statute, regulation, contract, agreement or other document required to be described in the Registration Statement, Prospectus or in any Incorporated Document, or to be filed as an

 

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exhibit to the Registration Statement or any Incorporated Document which is not described or filed as required. The statements set forth or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, insofar as they purport to constitute summaries of the terms of the statutes, regulations, contracts, agreements or other documents described and filed, constitute accurate summaries of the terms thereof in all material respects. The statements set forth or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus under the headings “Risk Factors,” “Business—Intellectual Property,” “Business—Government Regulation and Product Approval,” “Legal Proceedings,” and “Description of Capital Stock,” insofar as such statements summarize legal matters, agreements, documents or proceedings discussed therein, are accurate and fair summaries of such legal matters, agreements, documents or proceedings. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has sent or received any communication regarding termination of, or intent not to renew or render performance under, any of the contracts or agreements referred to or described in the Prospectus or any free writing prospectus, or referred to or described in, or filed as an exhibit to, the Registration Statement, or any Incorporated Document, and no such termination or non-renewal has been threatened by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or, to the Company’s knowledge, any other party to any such contract or agreement, which threat of termination or non-renewal has not been rescinded as of the date hereof.

(o)    This Agreement has been duly and validly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and constitutes a valid and legally binding obligation of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, except as enforceability, including rights of indemnification, may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent conveyance, reorganization, moratorium and other similar laws relating to or affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general principles of equity.

(p)    The Company is not, and after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Prospectus will not be, an “investment company” as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

(q)    No consent, approval, license, permit, qualification, authorization or other order or decree of, or registration or filing with, any court or other governmental, taxing or regulatory authority or agency, is required for the Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement or consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby or by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (including the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares hereunder), except such as have been already obtained or made or as may be required under the Securities Act, applicable state securities or Blue Sky laws, applicable rules of Nasdaq, or Rule 5110 of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”).

(r)    Neither the execution and delivery by the Company of, nor the performance of the Company of its obligations under, this Agreement will conflict with, result in a breach or violation of, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries pursuant to: (i) the certificate or articles of incorporation, charter, bylaws, articles of association, limited liability company agreement, certificate or agreement of limited or general partnership or other similar organizational documents, as the case may be, of such entity, (ii) the terms of any indenture, contract, license, lease, mortgage, deed of trust, note agreement, agreement or other instrument, obligation, condition, covenant or instrument to which it is a party or bound or to which its property or assets is subject or (iii) any statute, law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree applicable to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any court, regulatory body, administrative agency, governmental body, arbitrator or other authority having jurisdiction over the Company, any of its Subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets, as applicable, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(s)    Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: (i) there has been no material adverse change, or any development that could

 

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reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (ii) neither the Company nor its Subsidiaries has (A) incurred any material liability or obligation, indirect, direct or contingent, including without limitation any losses or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood, earthquakes, accident or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any strike, labor dispute or court or governmental action, order or decree, that are material, individually or in the aggregate, to the Company and its Subsidiaries, considered as one entity, (B) entered into any material transactions not in the ordinary course of business or (C) issued or granted any shares of the Company’s capital stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for or that represent the right to receive shares of the Company’s capital stock other than under the Stock Plans or inducement awards in compliance with Rule 5635(c)(4) of the Nasdaq Listing Rules; and (iii) there has not been any material decrease in the share capital or any material increase in any short-term or long-term indebtedness of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries and there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company or, except for dividends paid to the Company or another Subsidiary, by any Subsidiary on any class of shares, or any repurchase or redemption by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any class of shares.

(t)    There are no persons (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act) with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities of the Company registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement, except for such rights as have been duly waived in a writing previously furnished to the Agent.

(u)    The financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, together with the related notes and schedules, present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and the Subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the consolidated results of operations, cash flows and changes in stockholders’ equity of the Company and the Subsidiaries for the periods specified and have been prepared in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Act and Exchange Act and in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved, except in the case of unaudited interim financial statements, subject to normal year-end audit adjustments and the exclusion of certain footnotes as permitted by the applicable rules of the Commission. To the extent applicable, any pro forma financial statements, information or data included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus comply with the requirements of Regulation S-X of the Securities Act, including, without limitation, Article 11 thereof, fairly present, in all material respects, the information set forth herein, and the assumptions used in the preparation of such pro forma financial statements and data are reasonable, the pro forma adjustments used therein are appropriate to give effect to the circumstances referred to therein and the pro forma adjustments have been properly applied to the historical amounts in the compilation of those statements and data. The other financial data set forth or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly in all material respects the information shown therein and have been compiled on a basis consistent with that of the financial statements and books and records of the Company. There are no financial statements (historical or pro forma) that are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not included or incorporated by reference therein as required under the Securities Act or the regulations promulgated thereunder. The Company and the Subsidiaries do not have any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), not disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. All disclosures contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that contain “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply, in all material respects, with Regulation G under the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, to the extent applicable. The statistical, industry-related and market-related data included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus were obtained or derived from sources which the Company reasonably and in good faith

 

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believes are reliable and accurate, such data agree with the sources from which they are derived, and the Company has obtained the written consent to the use of such data from such sources to the extent required. To the Company’s knowledge, no person who has been suspended or barred from being associated with a registered public accounting firm, or who has failed to comply with any sanction pursuant to Rule 5300 promulgated by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), has participated in or otherwise aided the preparation of, or audited, the financial statements, supporting schedules or other financial data filed with the Commission as a part of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(v)    There are no actions, suits, claims, investigations or proceedings pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened to which the Company or any of the Subsidiaries is or would be a party, or of which any of the respective properties or assets of the Company and the Subsidiaries is or would be subject, at law or in equity, before any court or arbitral body or by or before any federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory commission, board, body, authority or agency, that (i) are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and are not so described, (ii) could reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement or on the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated hereby or (iii) could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The aggregate of all pending legal or governmental proceedings to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or of which any of their respective properties or assets is the subject which are not described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including ordinary routine litigation incidental to the Company’s business, would not reasonably be expected to (A) result in a Material Adverse Effect or (B) have a material adverse effect on the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement or the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated hereby.

(w)    The Company owns or leases all such real properties as are necessary to the conduct of its operations as presently conducted in all material respects.

(x)    Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in violation or default of (i) any provision of its certificate or articles of incorporation, charter, bylaws, articles of association, limited liability company agreement, certificate or agreement of limited or general partnership, or other similar organizational documents, as the case may be, of such entity, (ii) the terms of any indenture, contract, lease, mortgage, deed of trust, note agreement, loan agreement or other agreement, obligation, condition, covenant or instrument to which it is a party or bound or to which its property or assets is subject, or (iii) any applicable statute, law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any court, regulatory body, administrative agency, governmental body, arbitrator or other authority having jurisdiction over the Company, any of its Subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets, as applicable, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(y)    KPMG LLP, whose report on the consolidated financial statements of the Company is filed with the Commission as part of the Company’s most recent annual report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission and incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is (i) an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and the rules of the PCAOB, (ii) in compliance with the applicable requirements relating to the qualification of accountants under Rule 2-01 of Regulation S-X under the Securities Act and (iii) a registered public accounting firm as defined by the PCAOB whose registration has not been suspended or revoked and who has not requested such registration to be withdrawn. KPMG LLP has not been engaged by the Company to perform any “prohibited activities” or provided to the Company any prohibited “non-audit services” (as defined in Section 10A of the Exchange Act).

 

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(z)    There are no transfer taxes or other similar fees or charges under federal law, the laws of any state, any foreign law, or any political subdivision thereof, required to be paid in connection with the execution and delivery of this Agreement or the issuance by the Company or sale by the Company of the Placement Shares.

(aa)    All United States federal income tax returns of the Company and its Subsidiaries required by law to be filed have been filed or extensions thereof have been requested, and all taxes shown by such returns or otherwise assessed, which are due and payable, have been paid, except assessments that are being contested in good faith and as to which adequate reserves have been provided under GAAP, except where the failure to pay or file any such taxes would not have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has no knowledge of any material tax deficiency which has been or is likely to be threatened or asserted against the Company or its Subsidiaries. Each of the Company and its Subsidiaries has filed all foreign, state, provincial, local or other tax returns that are required to have been filed pursuant to applicable foreign, state, provincial, local or other law except insofar as the failure to file such returns would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, and paid all taxes due pursuant to such returns or pursuant to any assessment received by the Company and its Subsidiaries, except for such taxes, if any, as are being contested in good faith and as to which adequate reserves have been provided and except for such taxes or assessments the nonpayment of which would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. The charges, accruals and reserves on the books of the Company and its Subsidiaries in respect of any income or other tax liability for any years not finally determined are adequate to meet any assessments or re-assessments for additional tax for any years not finally determined, except to the extent of any inadequacy that would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(bb)    No labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries exists or, to the Company’s knowledge, is threatened or imminent, and the Company is not aware of any existing, threatened or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or any of its Subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, manufacturers, contractors or customers, in each case that would have a Material Adverse Effect. None of the employees of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is represented by a union and, to the knowledge of the Company, no union organizing activities are taking place. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has violated (or received notice of any violation of) any federal, state or local law or foreign law relating to the discrimination in hiring, promotion or pay of employees, nor any applicable wage or hour laws, or the rules and regulations thereunder, or analogous foreign laws and regulations, which would, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(cc)    Each of the Company and its Subsidiaries are insured by recognized and reputable institutions with policies in such amounts and with such deductibles and covering such risks as are generally maintained by companies engaged in the same or similar businesses and at the same or similar stage of development, and which the Company reasonably believes are adequate to protect the Company and its business. The Company has no reason to believe that it or any of its Subsidiaries will not be able (i) to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such policies expire or (ii) to obtain comparable coverage from similar institutions as may be necessary or appropriate to conduct its business as now conducted and at a cost that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has been denied any material insurance coverage which it has sought or for which it has applied.

(dd)    The Company and each of its Subsidiaries has good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property owned by them and good and marketable title to all personal property owned by them that in each case is material to their business (except with respect to intellectual property, which is addressed exclusively in Section 6(pp) and Section 6(ggg) below), in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects except such as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not

 

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interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any Subsidiary; and any real property and buildings held under lease by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases (subject to the effects of (A) bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent conveyance, fraudulent transfer, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights or remedies of creditors generally; (B) the application of general principles of equity (including, without limitation, concepts of materiality, reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing, regardless of whether enforcement is considered in proceedings at law or in equity); and (C) applicable law and public policy with respect to rights to indemnity and contribution) with such exceptions as are not material and do not interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property and buildings by the Company or such Subsidiary.

(ee)    The Company and its Subsidiaries possess and are operating in compliance with such valid and current material certificates, authorizations or permits required by United States federal, state or foreign regulatory agencies or bodies to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted and as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, “Permits”). Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is in violation of, or in default under, any of the Permits or has received any written notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of, or non-compliance with, any such Permit, which, individually or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(ff)    The Company and each of its Subsidiaries make and keep accurate books and records and maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and (v) the interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(gg)    The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have established and maintain disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15 under the Exchange Act), which (i) are designed to ensure that information relating to the Company, including its consolidated Subsidiaries, is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and its principal financial officer by others within those entities, particularly during the periods in which the periodic reports required under the Exchange Act are being prepared; (ii) have been evaluated by management of the Company for effectiveness as of the end of the Company’s most recent fiscal quarter; and (iii) are effective in all material respects to perform the functions for which they were established. Since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting, including any corrective actions with regard to significant deficiencies or material weaknesses. The Company is not aware of any change in its internal control over financial reporting that has occurred during its most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

(hh)    Neither the Company, nor any of its Subsidiaries, nor to the knowledge of the Company, any of its or their respective directors, officers or controlling persons has taken, directly or indirectly, without giving effect to any actions taken by the Agent, (i) any action designed to or that might constitute or reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement

 

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Shares or (ii) any action designed to or that might constitute or reasonably be expected to cause or result in a violation of Regulation M under the Exchange Act.

(ii)    Except as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect: (i) neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is in violation of any United States federal, state or local, or any foreign, statute, law, rule, regulation, ordinance, code, policy or rule of common law or any judicial or administrative interpretation thereof, including any judicial or administrative order, consent, decree or judgment, relating to pollution or protection of human health, the environment (including, without limitation, ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata) or wildlife, including, without limitation, laws and regulations relating to the emissions, discharges, release or threatened release of chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, wastes, toxic substances, hazardous substances, petroleum or petroleum products (collectively, “Hazardous Materials”) or otherwise related to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Hazardous Materials (collectively, “Environmental Laws”), which violation includes, but is not limited to, noncompliance with any permits or other governmental authorizations required for the operation of the business of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries under applicable Environmental Laws, or noncompliance with the terms and conditions thereof, nor has the Company or any of its Subsidiaries received any written communication, whether from a governmental authority, citizens group, employee or otherwise, that alleges that the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is in violation of any Environmental Law; (ii) the Company and its Subsidiaries have all material permits, authorizations and approvals required under any applicable Environmental Laws and are in compliance with their requirements; (iii) there are no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened administrative, regulatory or judicial actions, suits, demands, demand letters, claims, liens, notices of noncompliance or violation, investigation or proceedings relating to any Environmental Law against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or any investigation with respect to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries has received written notice or any written notice by any person or entity alleging potential liability for investigatory costs, cleanup costs, governmental responses costs, natural resources damages, property damages, personal injuries, attorneys’ fees or penalties arising out of, based on or resulting from the presence, or release into the environment, of any Hazardous Materials at any location owned, leased or operated by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, now or in the past; and (iv) to the Company’s knowledge, there are no past or present actions, activities, events, conditions, incidents or circumstances that might reasonably be expected to result in a violation of any Environmental Law or form the basis of an order for clean-up or remediation, or an action, suit, investigation or proceeding by any private party or governmental body or agency, against or affecting the Company or any of its Subsidiaries relating to Hazardous Materials or any Environmental Laws.

(jj)    The Company and any “employee benefit plan” (as defined under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (collectively, “ERISA”)) established or maintained by the Company, or its “ERISA Affiliates” (as defined below) are in compliance in all material respects with ERISA. “ERISA Affiliates” means, with respect to the Company, any member of any group of organizations described in Sections 414(b), (c), (m) or (o) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (the “Code”) of which the Company is a member. No “reportable event” (as defined under ERISA) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur with respect to any “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company, or any of its ERISA Affiliates. No “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company or any of its ERISA Affiliates, if such “employee benefit plan” were terminated, would have any “amount of unfunded benefit liabilities” (as defined under ERISA). Neither the Company nor any of its ERISA Affiliates has incurred or reasonably expects to incur any liability under (i) Title IV of ERISA with respect to termination of, or withdrawal from, any “employee benefit plan” or (ii) Sections 412, 4971, 4975 or 4980B of the Code. Each “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company or any of its ERISA Affiliates that is intended to be qualified

 

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under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified and nothing has occurred, whether by action or failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification.

(kk)    The Company is in compliance with, and there is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any applicable provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended, (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), and the applicable rules and regulations promulgated thereunder and in connection therewith, in each case with which the Company is required to comply, including Section 402 relating to loans.

(ll)    Neither the Company, any of its Subsidiaries, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any of their respective directors, officers, agents, employees or affiliates, has taken or will take any action in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization or approval of the unlawful payment or giving of money, property, gifts or anything else of value, directly or indirectly, to any “government official” (including any officer or employee of a government or government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office) to influence official action or secure an improper advantage for or on behalf of the Company; and the Company, each of its Subsidiaries and, to the Company’s knowledge, each of their respective affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with applicable anti-corruption laws.

(mm)    None of the Company, any Subsidiary affiliate, director, officer or employee thereof or, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, representative or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or affiliates, is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, that would result in a violation by such persons of any applicable anti-corruption laws, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “FCPA”), including, without limitation, making use of the mails or any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce corruptly in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay or authorization of the payment of any money, or other property, gift, promise to give, or authorization of the giving of anything of value to any “foreign official” (as such term is defined in the FCPA) or any foreign political party or official thereof or any candidate for foreign political office in contravention of the FCPA; and the Company, its Subsidiaries and each of their respective affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with the FCPA and have instituted and maintained policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.

(nn)    The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements and the money laundering statutes and the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit, investigation or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its Subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened.

(oo)    Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries, nor any director or officer thereof, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any employee, agent, affiliate or representative of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, is currently or is owned or controlled by an individual or entity that is subject to any sanctions administered or enforced by the United States government (including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the United States Department of the Treasury), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”) or is located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject or target of Sanctions; and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the sale of the Placement

 

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Shares, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any Subsidiary, or any joint venture partner or other person or entity, for the purpose of financing or facilitating the activities of or business of any person or entity, or in any country or territory, that currently or at the time of such financing or facilitation is the subject of any Sanctions or in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person or entity (including any person participating in the transactions contemplated by this Agreement) of any Sanctions. For the past three years, the Company and its Subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in and are not now knowingly engaged in any dealings or transactions with any person or entity, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.

(pp)    The Company and its Subsidiaries own or possess adequate rights or can acquire on reasonable terms sufficient licensed rights to use all inventions, patent applications, patents, trademarks, trade names, service names, domain names, copyrights, trade secrets, know-how and other intellectual property (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) as are reasonably necessary or material for the conduct of their respective businesses as currently conducted or as currently proposed to be conducted and as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. There is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened (i) action, suit, proceeding, or claim by others challenging the rights of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries in or to any such Intellectual Property that, if decided adversely to the Company or such Subsidiary would, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim; (ii) action, suit, proceeding, or claim by others that the Company or any of its Subsidiaries infringes, misappropriates, or otherwise violates any Intellectual Property of others that, if decided adversely to the Company or such Subsidiary would, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim; or (iii) action, suit, proceeding, or claim by others challenging the validity, scope, or enforceability of any such Intellectual Property owned or licensed by the Company or its Subsidiaries and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim. To the Company’s knowledge, the operation of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries as now conducted, and as described in the Prospectus, and in connection with the development and commercialization of the products described in the Prospectus does not infringe, misappropriate, conflict with or otherwise violate any claim of any patent or published patent application of any other person or entity. There is no prior art of which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is aware that may render any patent owned or licensed by the Company or its Subsidiaries, and material to the Company or its Subsidiaries’ operations, invalid or any patent application owned or licensed by the Company or its Subsidiaries unpatentable which has not been disclosed to the applicable government patent office. The Company’s granted or issued patents, registered trademarks and registered copyrights have been duly maintained and are in full force and effect, and none of the patents, trademarks and copyrights have been adjudged invalid or unenforceable in whole or in part, except as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company knows of no infringement, misappropriation or violation by others of any Intellectual Property owned or licensed by the Company or its Subsidiaries that cover the Company’s clinical development candidates described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is a party to or bound by any options, licenses or agreements with respect to the Intellectual Property of any other person or entity that are required to be set forth in the Prospectus and that are not described therein in all material respects. The Company and its Subsidiaries have taken all reasonable steps necessary to secure their interests in the Intellectual Property of the Company and its Subsidiaries from their employees and contractors and to protect the confidentiality of all of their confidential information and trade secrets. None of the technology or intellectual property used by the Company and its Subsidiaries in its business has been obtained or is being used by the Company or its Subsidiaries in violation of any contractual obligation binding on the Company or its Subsidiaries, or, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its officers, directors or employees or otherwise in violation of the rights of any persons. No third party has been granted by the Company or its Subsidiaries rights to the Intellectual Property of the Company or its Subsidiaries, including any rights that, if exercised, could enable

 

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such party to develop products competitive to those of the Company as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. All Intellectual Property owned or exclusively licensed by the Company or its Subsidiaries are free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, defects or other restrictions (other than non-exclusive licenses granted in the ordinary course of business), except those that would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and its Subsidiaries are not subject to any judgment, order, writ, injunction or decree of any court or any federal, state, local, foreign or other governmental department, commission, board, bureau, agency or instrumentality, domestic or foreign, or any arbitrator, nor has it entered into or is it a party to any agreement made in settlement of any pending or threatened litigation, which materially restricts or impairs their use of any Intellectual Property.

(qq)    The Company and each of its Subsidiaries (i) are and have at all times been in compliance with all applicable laws, statutes, rules, regulations or guidance applicable to the Company and its Subsidiaries and the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, advertising, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any pharmaceuticals or biohazardous substances, materials or any other products developed, manufactured or distributed by the Company (including, without limitation, from the United States Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) and any local or other governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA or EMA) (collectively, “Applicable Laws”), except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) have not received any notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or notice from the FDA or any other federal, state or foreign governmental authority having authority over the Company, any of its Subsidiaries or their activities alleging or asserting noncompliance with any Applicable Laws or any material licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (collectively, the “Governmental Permits”), (iii) have made all filings with, the appropriate local, or other governmental or regulatory agencies or bodies that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where any failures to possess or make the same would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect, (iv) possess all material Governmental Permits necessary to conduct their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, and such Governmental Permits are valid and in full force and effect and are not in violation of any material term of any such Governmental Permits, (v) have filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Governmental Permits and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and correct in all material respects on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission), and (vi) are not a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental authority. All Governmental Permits are valid and in full force and effect, except where the validity or failure to be in full force and effect would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received notification of any revocation, modification, suspension, termination or invalidation (or proceedings related thereto) of any such Governmental Permit and the Company has no reason to believe that any such Governmental Permit will not be renewed. Neither the Company, any of its Subsidiaries nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of their respective directors, officers, employees or agents has been convicted of any crime under any Applicable Laws or has been the subject of an FDA debarment proceeding. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has been nor is now subject to the FDA’s Application Integrity Policy. To the Company’s knowledge, neither the Company, any of its Subsidiaries nor any of its directors, officers, employees or agents has made, or caused the making of, any false statements on, or material omissions from, any other

 

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records or documentation prepared or maintained to comply with the requirements of the FDA or any other governmental authority.

(rr)    There is no legal or governmental proceeding to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or of which any property or assets of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is the subject, including any proceeding before the FDA, the EMA or any foreign, local, national or other governmental agency with jurisdiction over the types of products being developed by the Company that is required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and is not described therein, or which, singularly or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and no such proceedings are threatened or contemplated by governmental or regulatory authorities or threatened by others. The Company and its Subsidiaries (i) have not received notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any governmental authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Governmental Permits and have no knowledge that any such governmental authority or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding and (ii) have not received notice that any governmental authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any Governmental Permits and the Company has no knowledge that any such governmental authority is considering such action.

(ss)    The research, non-clinical studies, pre-clinical studies and clinical trials and tests conducted or being conducted by or on behalf of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or in which any of their respective product candidates have participated and, to the Company’s knowledge, the preclinical studies and clinical trials directed or sponsored by the Company’s collaborators (collectively, the “Studies”) that are described in, or the results of which are referred to in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus were and, if still pending, are being conducted with reasonable care and in all material respects in accordance with the protocols, procedures and controls pursuant to all Applicable Laws and Governmental Permits and with standard medical and scientific research procedures; each description of the results of such Studies is accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly presents the data derived from such Studies, and the Company and its Subsidiaries have no knowledge of any other research, non-clinical studies or tests the results of which are inconsistent with, or otherwise call into question, the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; the Company and its Subsidiaries have made all such filings and obtained all such approvals as may be required by the EMA, the FDA or any committee thereof or from any other United States or foreign government agency with jurisdiction over the types of products being developed by the Company; neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received any notice of, or correspondence from, any governmental authority requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any Study; and the Company and its Subsidiaries have each operated and currently are in compliance in all material respects with all applicable rules, regulations and policies of all governmental authorities. There have been no material serious adverse events resulting from any Study. To the Company’s knowledge, the manufacturing facilities and operations of its suppliers are operated in compliance in all material respects with all Applicable Laws and Governmental Permits.

(tt)    The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Agent has informed the Company that the Agent may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell shares of Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect; provided, that (i) no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except to the extent the Agent may engage in sales of Placement Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agent, except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Agent.

 

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(uu)    The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction.

(vv)    The Company is not required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act and does not, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control or have any other association with (within the meaning of Article I of the By-laws of FINRA) any member firm of FINRA. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company, on the one hand, and the directors, officers or shareholders of the Company, on the other hand, which is required by the rules of FINRA to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, which is not so described. All of the information (including, but not limited to, information regarding affiliations, security ownership and trading activity) provided to the Agent or its counsel by the Company, its officers and directors and the holders of any securities (debt or equity) or warrants, options or rights to acquire any securities of the Company in connection with the filing to be made and other supplemental information to be provided to FINRA pursuant to FINRA Rule 5110 in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement is true, complete and correct.

(ww)    As of the close of trading on Nasdaq on January 6, 2023, the aggregate market value of the outstanding voting and non-voting common equity (as defined in Rule 405) of the Company held by persons other than affiliates of the Company (pursuant to Rule 144 of the Securities Act, those that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control, or are controlled by, or are under common control with, the Company) (the “Non-Affiliate Shares”), was approximately $84,866,735 (calculated by multiplying (x) the price at which the common equity of the Company was last sold on Nasdaq on January 6, 2023 by (y) the number of Non-Affiliate Shares outstanding on January 6, 2023). The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously.

(xx)    Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

(yy)    Each of the independent directors (or independent director nominees, once appointed, if applicable) named in the Registration Statement and Prospectus satisfies the independence standards established by Nasdaq and, with respect to members of the Company’s audit committee, the enhanced independence standards contained in Rule 10A-3(b)(1) promulgated by the Commission under the Exchange Act.

(zz)    Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its affiliates (within the meaning of Rule 144 under the Securities Act) has, prior to the date hereof, made any offer or sale of any securities which could be “integrated” (within the meaning of the Securities Act) with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares hereunder.

(aaa)    Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has (i) failed to pay any dividend or sinking fund installment on preferred stock or (ii) defaulted on any installment or payment due on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(bbb)    Each financial or operational projection or other “forward-looking statement” (as defined by Section 27A of the Securities Act or Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (i) was so included by the Company in good faith and with reasonable basis after due consideration by the Company of the underlying assumptions, estimates and other applicable facts

 

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and circumstances and (ii) as required, is accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements identifying those factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in such forward-looking statement.

(ccc)    There are no relationships, direct or indirect, or related party transactions involving the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or any other person (including any director, officer, stockholder, customer or supplier of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries) required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that have not been described as required. There are no material outstanding loans, advances (except normal advances for business expenses in the ordinary course of business) or guarantees of indebtedness by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to or for the benefit of any of the officers or directors of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or any of the family members of any of such persons.

(ddd)    The Company is not in or subject to a bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding in any jurisdiction.

(eee)    The Company and its Subsidiaries (i) are in compliance, in all material respects, with any and all applicable foreign, federal, state and local laws, rules, regulations, treaties, statutes and codes promulgated by any and all governmental authorities (including pursuant to the Occupational Health and Safety Act) relating to the protection of human health and safety the workplace (“Occupational Laws”); (ii) have received all material permits, licenses or other approvals required of it under applicable Occupational Laws to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted; and (iii) are in compliance, in all material respects, with all terms and conditions of such permits, licenses or approvals. No action, proceeding, revocation proceeding, writ, injunction or claim is pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries relating to Occupational Laws, and the Company does not have knowledge of any facts, circumstances or developments relating to its operations or cost accounting practices that could reasonably be expected to form the basis for or give rise to such actions, suits, investigations or proceedings, except where such actions, suits, investigations or proceedings, individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(fff)    To the Company’s knowledge, no director or officer of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is subject to any non-competition agreement or non-solicitation agreement with any employer or prior employer which could materially affect each director’s or officer’s ability to be and act in the capacity of a director or officer of the Company or a Subsidiary.

(ggg)    The Company has duly and properly filed or caused to be filed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the “PTO”) and applicable foreign and international patent and trademark authorities all patents, trademarks, copyrights and applications relating to the same owned by the Company and its Subsidiaries (the “Company Patent Applications”). To the knowledge of the Company, the Company has complied with the PTO’s duty of candor and disclosure for the Company Patent Applications and has made no material misrepresentation in the Company Patent Applications. To the Company’s knowledge, the Company Patent Applications disclose patentable subject matter. The Company has not been notified in writing of any inventorship challenges nor has any interference been declared or provoked in writing nor is any material fact known by the Company that would preclude the issuance of patents with respect to the Company Patent Applications or would render such patents, if issued, invalid or unenforceable. Except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has breached and is currently in breach of any provision of any license, contract or other agreement governing the use by the Company or its Subsidiaries of Intellectual Property owned by third parties (collectively, the “Licenses”) and no third party has alleged any such breach and the Company is unaware of any facts that would form a reasonable basis for such a claim. To the Company’s knowledge,

 

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no other party to the Licenses has breached or is currently in breach of any provision of the Licenses. Each of the Licenses is in full force and effect and constitutes a valid and binding agreement between the parties thereto, enforceable in accordance with its terms, and there has not occurred any breach or default under any such Licenses or any event that, with the giving of notice or lapse of time, would constitute a breach or default thereunder. Except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has been and is currently involved in any disputes regarding the Licenses. To the Company’s knowledge, all patents licensed to the Company pursuant to the Licenses are valid, enforceable and being duly maintained. To the Company’s knowledge, all patent applications licensed to the Company pursuant to the Licenses are being duly prosecuted.

Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company and delivered to the Agent or its counsel in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company, as to matters covered thereby, to the Agent.

7.    Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent that:

(a)    Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which the Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule); (i) the Company will notify the Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than Incorporated Documents or amendments not related to the Placement Shares, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents or supplements not related to the Placement Shares, has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information; (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agent’s reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agent’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable to comply with applicable law in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing (but without limiting the Agent’s rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agent has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that (A) the failure of the Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement, (B) the Company has no obligation to provide the Agent any advance copy of such filing or to provide the Agent an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name the Agent or does not relate to the Placement Shares, and (C) provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the Company’s making such filing or failure to provide the Agent with a copy of such filing, amendment or supplement, notwithstanding the Agent’s objection (but without limiting the Agent’s rights under Section 9 hereof), will be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any Incorporated Document, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act and, in the case of any Incorporated Document, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed. The determination to file or not to file any

 

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amendment or supplement with the Commission, based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections, shall be made exclusively by the Company.

(b)    Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agent promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement related to the Placement Shares or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement with respect to the Placement Shares or the Prospectus.

(c)    Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and will file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will as promptly as practicable amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance. The Company may delay any such amendment or supplement, if in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company to do so. If the Company has omitted any information with respect to the Placement Shares from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use commercially reasonable efforts to comply with the provisions thereof and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agent promptly of all such filings if not available on EDGAR.

(d)    Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq. The Company will timely file with Nasdaq all material documents and notices required by Nasdaq of companies that have or will issue securities that are traded on Nasdaq.

(e)    Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agent and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all Incorporated Documents) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all Incorporated Documents filed with the Commission during such period), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable

 

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and in such quantities as the Agent may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agent’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agent to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

(f)    Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Agent as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) of and Rule 158 under the Securities Act. For the avoidance of doubt, the Company’s compliance with the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act shall be deemed to satisfy this Section 7(f).

(g)    Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of the Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto and of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (ii) the preparation, issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares and any taxes due or payable in connection therewith, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(w) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for the Agent in connection therewith shall be paid by the Agent except as set forth in clauses (vii) and (viii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to the Agent and its counsel of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, owed to the Commission or FINRA and the fees and expenses of any transfer agent or registrar for the Shares, (vii) the filing fees and associated legal expenses of the Agent’s outside legal counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department in an amount not to exceed $15,000 (excluding FINRA filing fees referred to in clause (vi) above and in addition to the fees and disbursements referred to in clause (viii) below), and (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of the Agent’s outside legal counsel (A) in an amount not to exceed $75,000 arising out of executing this Agreement and the Company’s delivery of the initial certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) and (B) in an amount not to exceed $15,000 in connection with each Representation Date (as defined below) on which the Company is required to provide a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) (in addition to the fees and associated expenses referred to in clause (vii) above).

(h)    Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

(i)    Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire shares of Common Stock during the period beginning on the fifth Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to Agent hereunder and ending on the second Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination) (such period, the “Notice Period”); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market offering” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered

 

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pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, shares of Common Stock prior to the later of the termination of this Agreement and the sixtieth day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) shares of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock, other securities under the Company’s existing equity incentive plans or inducement equity awards pursuant to Rule 5635(c)(4) of the Nasdaq Listing Rules, or shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards or vesting of other securities, pursuant to any employee or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not shares of Common Stock subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise or vesting of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agent and (iii) shares of Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations; joint ventures; collaborations; licensing arrangements; manufacturing, distribution, marketing, supply, sponsored research, technology transfer or development or third party service arrangements; or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for capital raising purposes.

(j)    Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise the Agent after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided or required to be provided to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement at least three Business Days prior to tendering a Placement Notice.

(k)    Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent or its counsel from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours, as the Agent may reasonably request.

(l)    Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on or prior to such dates as the Securities Act shall require with respect to the Placement Shares, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market; provided, that, unless a prospectus supplement containing such information is required to be filed under the Securities Act, the requirement of this Section 7(l) may be satisfied by Company’s inclusion in the Company’s Form 10-K or Form 10-Q, as applicable, of the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares during the relevant period.

(m)    Representation Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the date on which the Company first delivers a Placement Notice pursuant to this agreement (the “First Placement Notice Date”) and each time the Company:

 

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(i)    amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

(ii)    files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

(iii)    files a quarterly report on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

(iv)    files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release that is “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”),

the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if (1) a Placement Notice is pending or in effect and (2) the Agent requests such certificate within three Business Days after the filing of such Form 8-K with the Commission) with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) (modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented), within two Trading Days of any Representation Date. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be automatically waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending or in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of (1) the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and (2) the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date on which the Company relied on the waiver referred to in the previous sentence and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers a Placement Notice or the Agent sells any Placement Shares pursuant thereto, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of such Placement Notice. Within two Trading Days of each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may reasonably request.

(n)    Legal Opinions. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent the written opinion and negative assurance letter of Fenwick & West LLP, counsel to the Company, or such other counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Agent (“Company Counsel”), in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion and negative assurance letter are required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinion and negative assurance letter for subsequent Representation Dates, Company Counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion or negative assurance letter delivered by such counsel under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion or negative assurance letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

(o)    Intellectual Property Opinion. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent the written opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP, counsel for the Company with respect to intellectual property matters, or such other intellectual

 

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property counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Agent (“Intellectual Property Counsel”), in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion letter is required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such written opinion for subsequent Representation Dates, Intellectual Property Counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion letter delivered by such counsel under this Section 7(o) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such opinion letter (except that statements in such prior opinion letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

(p)    Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm (and any other independent accountants whose report is included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) to furnish the Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(p); provided, that if requested by the Agent, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agent within 10 Trading Days of the occurrence of any material transaction or event that necessitates the filing of additional, pro forma, amended or revised financial statements (including any restatement of previously issued financial statements). Each Comfort Letter shall be in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and each Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall (i) confirm that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) state, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) update the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

(q)    Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, and will cause its officers, directors and Subsidiaries not to (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of shares of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase shares of Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of Common Stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

(r)    Insurance. The Company and its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

(s)    Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all Permits, and the Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such Permits and with applicable Environmental Laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such Permits could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(t)    Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor any of its Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

 

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(u)    Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

(v)    No Offer to Sell. Other than a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance by the Company and the Agent, neither the Agent nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agent in its capacity as agent) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

(w)    Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agent, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agent may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).

(x)    Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting its assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s financial statements in accordance with GAAP, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company will maintain such controls and other procedures, including, without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company is made known to it by others within the Company, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared.

(y)    Emerging Growth Company. The Company will promptly notify the Agent if the Company ceases to be an Emerging Growth Company at any time prior to the completion of the Agent’s distribution of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement.

 

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(z)    Renewal of Registration Statement. If, immediately prior to the third anniversary of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement (the “Renewal Date”), any of the Placement Shares remain unsold and this Agreement has not expired or been terminated, the Company may, prior to the Renewal Date, if it has not already done so and is eligible to do so, file a new shelf registration statement or, if applicable, an automatic shelf registration statement relating to the Common Stock that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement (which shall include a prospectus reflecting the number or amount of Placement Shares that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement), in a form reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, and, if such registration statement is not an automatic shelf registration statement, will use its reasonable best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 180 days after the Renewal Date. The Company may take all other reasonable actions necessary or appropriate to permit the public offer and sale of the Placement Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement and this Agreement. From and after the effective date thereof, references herein to the “Registration Statement” shall include such new shelf registration statement or such new automatic shelf registration statement, as the case may be.

(aa)    General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3. If, from and after the date of this Agreement, the Company is no longer eligible to use Form S-3 (including pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6.) at the time it files with the Commission an annual report on Form 10-K or any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, then it shall promptly notify the Agent and, within two Business Days after the date of filing of such annual report on Form 10-K or amendment to the Registration Statement, the Company shall file a new prospectus supplement with the Commission reflecting the number of shares of Common Stock available to be offered and sold by the Company under this Agreement pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any such prospectus supplement for up to 30 days if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company to do so, provided that no Placement Notice is in effect or pending during such time. Until such time as the Company shall have corrected such misstatement or omission or effected such compliance, the Company shall not notify the Agent to resume the offering of Placement Shares.

(bb)    Tax Indemnity. The Company will indemnify and hold harmless the Agent against any documentary, stamp or similar issue tax, including any interest and penalties, on the issue and sale of the Placement Shares.

(cc)    Transfer Agent. The Company has engaged and will maintain, at its sole expense, a transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock.

8.    Conditions to the Agent’s Obligations. The obligations of the Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to the Agent in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

(a)    Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for all offers and sales of Placement Shares (i) that have been issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) that will be issued pursuant to any Placement Notice.

(b)    Prospectus Supplement. The Company shall have filed with the Commission the Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act not later than the Commission’s close of business on the second Business Day following the date of this Agreement.

 

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(c)    No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material Incorporated Document untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or Incorporated Documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, in the case of the Prospectus, so that it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(d)    No Misstatement or Material Omission. The Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(e)    Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of the Agent (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

(f)    Company Counsel Legal Opinions. The Agent shall have received the opinions and negative assurance letters, as applicable, of Company Counsel and Intellectual Property Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) and Section 7(o), as applicable, on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions and negative assurance letters are required pursuant to Section 7(n) and Section 7(o), as applicable.

(g)    Agent’s Counsel Legal Opinion. The Agent shall have received from Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., counsel for the Agent, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as the Agent may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they may reasonably request to enable them to pass upon such matters.

 

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(h)    Comfort Letter. The Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(p) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(p).

(i)    Representation Certificate. The Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

(j)    Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date, the Agent shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date and in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, certifying as to (i) the amended and restated certificate of incorporation of the Company, (ii) the amended and restated bylaws of the Company, (iii) the resolutions of the board of directors of the Company or duly authorized committee thereof authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers of the Company duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement (including each of the officers set forth on Schedule 2).

(k)    No Suspension. The Common Stock shall be duly listed, and admitted and authorized for trading, subject to official notice of issuance, on Nasdaq. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on, and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from, Nasdaq.

(l)    Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may have reasonably requested. All such information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company shall have furnished the Agent with conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may have reasonably requested.

(m)    Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424(b) or Rule 433 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424(b) (without reliance on Rule 424(b)(8) of the Securities Act) or Rule 433, as applicable.

(n)    Approval for Listing. Either (i) the Placement Shares shall have been approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the First Placement Notice Date and Nasdaq shall have reviewed such application and not provided any objections thereto.

(o)    FINRA. FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of the offering contemplated hereby and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agent as described in the Prospectus.

(p)    No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agent to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

9.    Indemnification and Contribution.

(a)    Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its affiliates and their respective partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Agent within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Agent, in each

 

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case from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any and all investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with this Section 9)), in connection with any action, suit, investigation or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party (including any governmental or self-regulatory authority, or otherwise, or any claim asserted or threatened), as and when incurred, to which the Agent, or any such other person may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission or (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein (solely with respect to the Prospectus, in light of the circumstances under which they were made) not misleading; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused, directly or indirectly, by an untrue statement or omission, or alleged untrue statement or omission, made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

(b)    Agent Indemnification. The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

(c)    Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable and documented costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the reasonable and documented fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has

 

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reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable and documented fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable and documented fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm (plus local counsel) admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to such fees, disbursements and other charges in reasonable detail. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, from all liability arising out of such claim, action or proceeding and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

(d)    Settlement Without Consent if Failure to Reimburse. If an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for reasonable and documented fees and expenses of counsel for which it is entitled to be reimbursed under this Section 9, such indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of the nature contemplated by Section 9(a) effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request, (ii) such indemnifying party shall have received notice of the terms of such settlement at least 30 days prior to such settlement being entered into and (iii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed such indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.

(e)    Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or the Agent, the Company and the Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit, investigation or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than the Agent, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and the Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agent from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the

 

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relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(e), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action, suit, investigation, proceeding or claim to the extent consistent with this Section 9. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, any affiliates of the Agent, any partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents of the Agent and each person that is controlled by or under common control with the Agent will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer and director of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof or pursuant to Section 9(d) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

10.    Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors, employees or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

11.    Termination.

(a)    The Agent shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, at any time to terminate this Agreement with respect to its rights and obligations under this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, has occurred that, in the judgment of the Agent, may materially impair the ability of the Agent to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion or letter required under Section 7(m), Section 7(n), Section 7(o) or Section 7(p), the Agent’s right to terminate shall not arise

 

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unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than 15 calendar days from the date such delivery was required, (iii) any other condition of the Agent’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, (iv) any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred, (v) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any of United States federal or New York authorities, or (vi) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States or international political, financial or economic conditions that, in the judgment of the Agent, may materially impair the ability of the Agent to sell the Placement Shares hereunder or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), the Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12.

(b)    The Company shall have the right, by giving 10 days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(c)    The Agent shall have the right, by giving 10 days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(d)    Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through the Agent on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(e)    This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

(f)    Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective earlier than the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not be required to pay to the Agent any discount or commission with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by the Agent under this Agreement; provided, however, that the Company shall remain obligated to reimburse the Agent’s expenses pursuant to Section 7(g).

12.    Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:

 

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SVB Securities LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Peter M. Fry

E-mail:

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

SVB Securities LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Stuart R. Nayman, Esq.

E-mail:

and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

Pardes Biosciences, Inc.

2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 250, PMB#052

Carlsbad, CA 92008

Attention: General Counsel

E-mail:

with copies (which shall not constitute notice) to:

Fenwick & West LLP

801 California Street

Mountain View, CA 94041Attention: Ran D. Ben-Tzur; Jennifer J. Hitchcock

E-mail:

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally on or before 4:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Business Day, or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) by Electronic Notice as set forth in the next paragraph, (iii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier or (iv) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 12 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party in Section 12. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives actual acknowledgment of receipt from the person whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”), which shall be sent to the requesting party within 10 days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

13.    Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agent and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers, directors and other persons referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this

 

35


Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of each such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto, the persons referred to in the preceding sentence and their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agent may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of the Agent without obtaining the Company’s consent, so long as such affiliate is a registered broker-dealer.

14.    Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

15.    Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability; Waiver. This Agreement (including all schedules (as amended pursuant to this Agreement) and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agent; provided, however, that Schedule 2 of this Agreement may be amended by either party from time to time by sending a notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 and, upon such amendment, all references herein to Schedule 2 shall automatically be deemed to refer to such amended Schedule 2. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No implied waiver by a party shall arise in the absence of a waiver in writing signed by such party. No failure or delay in exercising any right, power, or privilege hereunder shall operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise thereof preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any right, power, or privilege hereunder.

16.    GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

17.    Consent to Jurisdiction. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any of the transactions contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum, or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices under Section 12 of this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute

 

36


good and sufficient notice of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

18.    Construction.

(a)    The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

(b)    Words defined in the singular shall have a comparable meaning when used in the plural, and vice versa.

(c)    The words “hereof,” “hereto,” “herein” and “hereunder” and words of similar import, when used in this Agreement, shall refer to this Agreement as a whole and not to any particular provision of this Agreement.

(d)    Wherever the word “include,” “includes” or “including” is used in this Agreement, it shall be deemed to be followed by the words “without limitation.”

(e)    References herein to any gender shall include each other gender.

(f)    References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

19.    Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. Each of the Company and the Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the other party, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an issuer free writing prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405), required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an issuer free writing prospectus, and that it has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping.

20.    Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

(a)    the Agent has been retained to act as sales agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares, the Agent has acted at arms’ length and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether the Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters and the Agent has no duties or obligations to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth herein;

(b)    the Company is capable of evaluating, and understanding and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

 

37


(c)    neither the Agent nor its affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

(d)    the Company has been advised and is aware that the Agent and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that the Agent and its affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

(e)    the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agent or its affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and agrees that the Agent and its affiliates shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees of the Company.

21.    Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes. In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity and becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, the transfer from the Agent of this Agreement, and any interest and obligation in or under this Agreement, will be effective to the same extent as the transfer would be effective under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement, and any such interest and obligation, were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity and the Agent or a BHC Act Affiliate of the Agent becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, Default Rights under this Agreement that may be exercised against the Agent are permitted to be exercised to no greater extent than such Default Rights could be exercised under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

For purposes of this Agreement, (A) “BHC Act Affiliate” has the meaning assigned to the term “affiliate” in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 U.S.C. § 1841(k); (B) “Covered Entity” means any of the following: (i) a “covered entity” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 252.82(b); (ii) a “covered bank” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 47.3(b); or (iii) a “covered FSI” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 382.2(b); (C) “Default Right” has the meaning assigned to that term in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. §§ 252.81, 47.2 or 382.1, as applicable; and (D) “U.S. Special Resolution Regime” means each of (i) the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

22.    Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission. Counterparts may be delivered via facsimile, electronic mail (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com) or other transmission method and any counterpart so delivered shall be deemed to have been duly and validly delivered and be valid and effective for all purposes.

 

38


23.    Use of Information. The Agent may not provide any information gained in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including due diligence, to any third party other than its legal counsel advising it on this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement unless expressly approved by the Company in writing.

24.    Agent’s Information. As used in this Agreement, “Agent’s Information” means solely the following information in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: the fifth paragraph under the heading “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus Supplement.

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR. All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

All references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agent outside of the United States.

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

39


If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agent, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agent.

 

Very truly yours,
PARDES BIOSCIENCES, INC.
By:  

/s/ Thomas G. Wiggans

  Name: Thomas G. Wiggans
 

Title: Chief Executive Officer and Chair of Board of Directors

ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
SVB SECURITIES LLC
By:  

/s/ Peter M. Fry

  Name: Peter M. Fry
  Title: Head of Alt Equities


SCHEDULE 1

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:

[                    ]

[TITLE]

Pardes Biosciences, Inc.

Cc:

[                    ]

To:

SVB Securities LLC

Subject:

SVB Securities—At the Market Offering—Placement Notice

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement, dated January 11, 2023 (the “Agreement”), by and between Pardes Biosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and SVB Securities LLC (“SVB Securities”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that SVB Securities sell up to [[    ] / $[        ] aggregate offering amount of] shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Shares”), at a minimum market price of $         per share[; provided that no more than [    ][$[        ] aggregate offering amount of] Shares shall be sold in any one Trading Day (as such term is defined in Section 3 of the Agreement)]. Sales should begin [on the date of this Placement Notice] and end on [DATE] [until all Shares that are the subject of this Placement Notice are sold].


SCHEDULE 2

The Company

Thomas G. Wiggans

Heidi Henson

Agent

Dan Dubin

Liz Meeks

atm@svbsecurities.com


SCHEDULE 3

Compensation

The Company shall pay the Agent compensation in cash equal to up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Placement Shares pursuant to the terms of the Agreement.


Exhibit 7(m)

OFFICERS’ CERTIFICATE

Each of Thomas G. Wiggans, the duly qualified and elected Chief Executive Officer of Pardes Biosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Heidi Henson, the duly qualified and elected Chief Financial Officer of the Company, does hereby certify in his or her respective capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement, dated January 11, 2023 (the “Sales Agreement”), by and between the Company and SVB Securities LLC, that, after due inquiry, to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

(i)    The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof.

(ii)    The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

(iii)    As of the date hereof, (A) the Registration Statement complies in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading, (B) the Prospectus complies in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading and (C) no event has occurred as a result of which it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein not untrue or misleading or for clauses (A) and (B) above, to be true and correct.

(iv)    There has been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, results of operations, business, properties, operations, assets, or liabilities of the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented to the date hereof.

(v)    The Company does not possess any material non-public information.

(vi)    The maximum amount of Placement Shares that may be sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement has been duly authorized by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof pursuant to a resolution or unanimous written consent in accordance with the Company’s amended and restated articles of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and applicable law.

Capitalized terms used but not defined herein shall have the meanings ascribed to them in the Sales Agreement.


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, each of the undersigned, in such individual’s respective capacity as Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, has executed this Officers’ Certificate on behalf of the Company.

 

By:  

    

  Name: Thomas G. Wiggans
  Title: Chief Executive Officer
  Date:
By:  

    

  Name: Heidi Henson
  Title: Chief Financial Officer
  Date:

[Signature Page to Officers’ Certificate]

EX-4.4

Exhibit 4.4

FORM OF DEBT SECURITY

[Face of Security.]

PARDES BIOSCIENCES, INC.

[If applicable, insert—FOR PURPOSES OF THE ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT PROVISIONS OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1986, AS AMENDED, THE ISSUE PRICE OF THIS SECURITY IS % OF ITS PRINCIPAL AMOUNT AT STATED MATURITY SET FORTH BELOW (ITS “PRINCIPAL AMOUNT”), THE AMOUNT OF ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT IS % OF ITS PRINCIPAL AMOUNT, THE YIELD TO MATURITY IS % AND THE ISSUE DATE IS ]

[if the security is a global security, insert—THIS NOTE IS A GLOBAL SECURITY. IT IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR NOTES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY (AS HEREINAFTER DEFINED) OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES HEREINAFTER DESCRIBED AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO A SUCCESSOR OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.]

 

No.

   $
     CUSIP
No.

Pardes Biosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation (herein called the “Company”, which term includes any successor corporation under the Indenture referred to on the reverse hereof), for value received, hereby promises to pay to, or registered assigns, the principal sum of Dollars on [if Security is to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—, and to pay interest thereon from or from the most recent Interest Payment Date to which interest has been paid or duly provided for, semi-annually on and in each year, commencing , at the rate of % per annum, until the principal hereof is paid or made available for payment [if applicable, insert—, provided that any principal and premium, and any such installment of interest, which is overdue shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment, and such interest shall be payable on demand]]. The interest so payable, and punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date will, as provided in such Indenture, be paid to the Person in whose name this Security (or one or more predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the record date for such interest, which shall be the or (whether or not a Business Day), as the case may be, next preceding such Interest Payment Date. Any such interest not so punctually paid or duly provided for will forthwith cease to be payable to the Holder on such record date and may either be paid to the Person at the time this Security (or one or more predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such defaulted interest to be fixed by the Trustee, notice whereof shall be given to Holders of Securities of this series not less than 10 days prior to such special record date, or be paid at any time in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which the Securities of this series may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, all as more fully provided in said Indenture. [If the Security is not to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—The principal of this Security shall not bear interest except in the case of a default in payment of principal upon acceleration, upon redemption or at Stated Maturity and in such case the overdue principal and any overdue premium shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue principal or premium shall be payable on demand. [Any such interest on overdue principal or premium which is not paid on demand shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest on interest shall be legally enforceable), from the date of such demand until the amount so demanded is paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue interest shall be payable on demand.]]


Payment of the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and [any such] interest on this Security will be made at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in in such coin or currency of [the United States of America] as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts[; provided, however, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the register of the Security maintained by the Registrar].

Reference is hereby made to the further provisions of this Security set forth on the reverse hereof, which further provisions shall for all purposes have the same effect as if set forth at this place.

Unless the certificate of authentication hereon has been manually executed by or on behalf of the Trustee under the Indenture referred to on the reverse hereof, this Security shall not be entitled to any benefit under the Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this instrument to be duly executed under its corporate seal.

 

Dated:     Pardes Biosciences, Inc.
    By    
      [Title]

 

Attest and Countersign
 

 

Secretary

[Reverse of Security.]

PARDES BIOSCIENCES, INC.

This Security is one of a duly authorized issue of securities of the Company (herein called the “Securities”), issued and to be issued in one or more series under an Indenture dated as of , (herein called the “Indenture,” which term shall have the meaning assigned to it in such instrument), between the Company and , as trustee (herein called the “Trustee”, which term includes any successor trustee under the Indenture), to which the Indenture and all indentures supplemental thereto reference is hereby made for a statement of the respective rights, limitations or rights, duties and immunities thereunder of the Company, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities and of the terms upon which the Securities are, and are to be, authenticated and delivered. This Security is one of the series designated on the face hereof [, limited in aggregate principal amount to $].

[If the Security is to be subordinated, insert—The indebtedness evidenced by this Security is, to the extent and in the manner set forth in the Indenture, expressly subordinated and subject in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all senior Indebtedness (as defined in the Indenture) of the Company. This Security is issued subject to such provisions of the Indenture, and each Holder of this Security, by accepting the same, agrees to and shall be bound by such provisions and authorizes and directs the Trustee on the Holder’s behalf to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to acknowledge or effectuate such subordination as provided in the Indenture and appoints the Trustee such Holder’s attorney-in-fact for any and all such purposes.]

The Securities of this series are subject to redemption upon not less than 30 days’, and no more than 60 days, notice provided in the manner set forth in the Indenture, [(1) on in any year commencing with the year and ending with the year at the Redemption Price (as indicated below) equal to 100% of the principal amount, and (2)] at any time [on or after], as a whole or in part, at the election of the principal the following Redemption Prices (expressed as percentages of the principal amount, as indicated below): If redeemed [on or before , %, and if redeemed] during the 12-month period beginning of the years indicated,

 

Year   

Redemption
Price

  

Year

  

Redemption
Price

and thereafter at a Redemption Price equal to % of the principal amount together in the case of any such redemption with accrued interest to the Redemption Date, but interest installments whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to such Redemption Date will be payable to the Holders of such Securities of record at the close of business on the relevant record dates referred to on the face hereof, all as provided in the Indenture.

 

2


[If the Security is to be redeemable in part, insert—In the event of redemption of this Security in part only, a new Security or Securities of this series for the unredeemed portion hereof will be issued in the name of the Holder hereof upon the cancellation hereof.]

[If the Security is to be subject to repayment at the option of the Holder, insert—To be repaid at the option of the Holder, the Company must receive this Security, with the form of “Option to Elect Repayment” hereon duly completed, at an office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in (or at such other place of which the Company shall from time to time notify the Holder of this Security) not less than nor more than days prior to the Repayment Date (as defined therein). The exercise of the repayment option by the Holder shall be irrevocable.]

[If the Security is not to be subject to redemption at the option of the Company, insert—The Securities are not redeemable at the option of the Company prior to Maturity.]

[If the Security is not to be an Original Issue Discount Security, insert—If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of this series shall occur and be continuing, the principal of the Securities of this series may be declared due and payable in the manner and with the effect provided in the Indenture.]

The Indenture permits, with certain exceptions as therein provided, the amendment thereof and the modification of the rights and obligations of the Company and the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each Series under the Indenture to be affected at any time by the Company with the consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding of each Series to be affected.

The Indenture also contains provisions permitting the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding, on behalf of the Holders of all Securities of such series, to waive compliance by the Company with certain provisions of the Indenture and certain past Defaults or Events of Default with respect to such Series under the Indenture and their consequences. Any such consent or waiver by the Holder of this Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders of this Security and of any Security issued upon the registration of transfer hereof or in exchange herefor or in lieu hereof, whether or not notation of such consent of waiver is made upon this Security.

As provided in and subject to the provisions of the indenture, the Holder of this Security shall not have the right to institute any proceeding with respect to the Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee or for any other remedy thereunder, unless such Holder shall have previously given the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of this series, the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of this series then outstanding shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default as Trustee and offered the Trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall not have received from the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of Securities of this series then outstanding a direction inconsistent with such request, and shall have failed to institute any such proceeding, for 60 days after receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity. The foregoing shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Holder of this Security for the enforcement of any payment of principal hereof or any premium or interest hereon on or after the respective due dates expressed herein.

No reference herein to the Indenture and no provision of this Security or of the Indenture shall alter or impair the obligation of the Company, which is absolute and unconditional, to pay the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security at the times, place and rate, and in the coin or currency, herein prescribed.

[If the Security is to be in registered form, insert—As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, the transfer of this Security is registrable in the register of the Registrar, upon surrender of this Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency of the Company in any place where the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security are payable, duly endorsed by, or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar duly executed by, the Holder hereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing, and, thereupon one or more new Securities of this series, of authorized denominations and for the same aggregate principal amount, will be issued to the designated transferee or transferees.]

 

3


[The Securities of this series are issuable only in registered form in denominations of $ [and any integral multiple] [or increments of $ in excess] thereof. As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, Securities of this series are exchangeable for a like aggregate principal amount of Securities of this series of a different authorized denomination, as requested by the Holder surrendering the same.]

[No service charge shall be made for any such registration of transfer or exchange, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith.]

[Prior to due presentment of this Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name this Security is registered as the owner hereof for all purposes, whether or not this Security be overdue, and neither the Company, the Trustee nor any such agent shall be affected by notice to the contrary.]

[If the Security is a Global Security, insert—“Global Security” and “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary (as hereinafter defined) for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or its nominee. “Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as the Depositary by the Company.

No holder of any beneficial interest in this Security held on its behalf by a Depositary or a nominee of such Depositary shall have any rights under the Indenture with respect to such Global Security, and such Depositary or nominee may be treated by the Company, the Trustee, and any agent of the Company or the Trustee as the owner of such Global Security for all purposes whatsoever. Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing herein shall impair, as between a Depositary and such holders of beneficial interests, the operation of customary practices governing the exercise of the rights of the Depositary as Holder of any Security.

This Security is exchangeable, in whole but not in part, for Securities registered in the names of Persons other than the Depositary or its nominee or in the name of a successor to the Depositary or a nominee of such successor depositary only if (i) the Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for this Note or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and, in either case, a successor depositary is not appointed by the Company within 90 days, (ii) the Company in its discretion at any time determines not to have all of the Securities of this series represented by one or more Global Security or Securities and notifies the Trustee thereof, or (iii) an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to the Securities of this series. If this Security is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence, it shall be exchangeable for Securities issuable in authorized denominations and registered in such names as the Depositary holding this Security shall direct. Subject to the foregoing, this Security is not exchangeable, except for a Security or Securities of the same aggregate denominations to be registered in the name of such Depositary or its nominee or in the name of a successor to the Depositary or a nominee of such successor depositary.]

[The Indenture entitles Holders to receive annual reports with respect to the Trustee’s eligibility and qualifications to serve as Trustee by filing their names and addresses with the Trustee for that purpose within two years preceding and mailing of any such annual report.]

No recourse shall be had for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any, on) or interest on this Security, or for any claim based hereon, or otherwise in respect hereof, or based on or in respect of the Indenture of any indenture supplemental thereto, against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, as such, past, present or future, of the Company or any successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise, all such liability being, by the acceptance hereof and as part of the consideration for the issue hereof, expressly waived and released.

All terms used in this Security which are defined in the Indenture shall have the meanings assigned to them in the Indenture.

 

4


This Security, including without limitation the obligation of the Company contained herein to pay the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security in accordance with the terms hereof and of the Indenture, shall be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York.

[Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.]

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

, as

[Authenticating Agent for] the Trustee

By    
  Authorized Officer

 

5

EX-4.5

Exhibit 4.5

PARDES BIOSCIENCES, INC.

And

            , as Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of                ,

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ARTICLE 1 – DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE      1  

1.1.

  DEFINITIONS.      1  

1.2.

  OTHER DEFINITIONS.      4  

1.3.

  INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT.      4  

1.4.

  RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.      5  
ARTICLE 2 – THE SECURITIES      5  

2.1.

  ISSUABLE IN SERIES.      5  

2.2.

  ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES.      6  

2.3.

  EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION.      7  

2.4.

  REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT.      8  

2.5.

  PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST.      9  

2.6.

  SECURITYHOLDER LISTS.      9  

2.7.

  TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.      9  

2.8.

  REPLACEMENT SECURITIES.      10  

2.9.

  OUTSTANDING SECURITIES.      10  

2.10.

  WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION.      10  

2.11.

  TEMPORARY SECURITIES.      11  

2.12.

  CANCELLATION.      11  

2.13.

  PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST.      11  

2.14.

  CUSIP NUMBER.      11  

2.15.

  PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES.      12  

2.16.

  PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS.      13  
ARTICLE 3 – REDEMPTION      13  

3.1.

  NOTICES TO TRUSTEE.      13  

3.2.

  SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED.      13  

3.3.

  NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.      13  

3.4.

  EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.      14  

3.5.

  DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE.      14  

3.6.

  SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART.      15  

ARTICLE 4 – COVENANTS

     15  

4.1.

  PAYMENT OF SECURITIES.      15  

4.2.

  SEC REPORTS.      15  

4.3.

  WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS.      15  

4.4.

  COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE.      15  

4.5.

  CORPORATE EXISTENCE.      16  
ARTICLE 5 – SUCCESSOR CORPORATION      16  

5.1.

  LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS.      16  

5.2.

  SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED.      17  
ARTICLE 6 – DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES      17  

6.1.

  EVENTS OF DEFAULT.      17  

6.2.

  ACCELERATION.      18  

6.3.

  REMEDIES.      18  

6.4.

  WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT.      18  

6.5.

  CONTROL BY MAJORITY.      19  

6.6.

  LIMITATION ON SUITS.      19  

6.7.

  RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT.      19  

6.8.

  COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE.      19  

6.9.

  TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM.      20  

6.10.

  PRIORITIES.      20  

6.11.

  UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS.      20  
ARTICLE 7 – TRUSTEE      21  

7.1.

  DUTIES OF TRUSTEE.      21  

7.2.

  RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.      21  

 

i


7.3.

  INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.      22  

7.4.

  TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER.      22  

7.5.

  NOTICE OF DEFAULT.      22  

7.6.

  REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS.      23  

7.7.

  COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY.      23  

7.8.

  REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE.      23  

7.9.

  SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION.      24  

7.10.

  ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION.      24  

7.11.

  PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY.      24  

7.12.

  PAYING AGENTS.      25  
ARTICLE 8 – AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS      25  

8.1.

  WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS.      25  

8.2.

  WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS.      25  

8.3.

  COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.      27  

8.4.

  REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS.      27  

8.5.

  NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES.      27  

8.6.

  TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.      27  
ARTICLE 9 – DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE      27  

9.1.

  DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE.      27  

9.2.

  LEGAL DEFEASANCE.      28  

9.3.

  COVENANT DEFEASANCE.      28  

9.4.

  CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE.      28  

9.5.

  DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.      29  

9.6.

  REINSTATEMENT.      30  

9.7.

  MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT.      30  

9.8.

  MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE.      30  
ARTICLE 10 – MISCELLANEOUS      31  

10.1.

  TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS.      31  

10.2.

  NOTICES.      31  

10.3.

  COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS.      32  

10.4.

  CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT.      32  

10.5.

  STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION.      32  

10.6.

  RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS.      32  

10.7.

  BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT.      32  

10.8.

  GOVERNING LAW.      33  

10.9.

  NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS.      33  

10.10.

  NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS.      33  

10.11.

  SUCCESSORS.      33  

10.12.

  MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS.      33  

10.13.

  TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.      33  

10.14.

  SEVERABILITY.      33  

10.15.

  SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS.      34  

10.16.

  JUDGMENT CURRENCY.      34  

 

 

ii


INDENTURE, dated as of                 ,                 , by and between Pardes Biosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation, as Issuer (the “Company”) and                 , a                  organized under the laws of                 , as Trustee (the “Trustee”).

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”), as herein provided, up to such principal amount as may from time to time be authorized in or pursuant to one or more resolutions of the Board of Directors or by supplemental indenture.

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company in accordance with its terms have been done, and the execution and delivery thereof have been in all respects duly authorized by the parties hereto.

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities of a Series thereof, as follows:

ARTICLE 1 -

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

1.1. DEFINITIONS.

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person which, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by or is under common control with, such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any Person, means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise.

“Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, co-registrar or agent for service of notices and demands.

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any committee duly authorized to act therefor.

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified pursuant to an Officers’ Certificate to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification which has been delivered to the Trustee.

“Capital Stock” means, with respect to any Person, any and all shares or other equivalents (however designated) of capital stock, partnership interests or any other participation, right or other interest in the nature of an equity interest in such Person or any option, warrant or other security convertible into any of the foregoing.

“Company” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces such party pursuant to Article 5 of this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor and any other primary obligor on the Securities.

“Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be its Chief Executive Officer or its Chief Financial Officer.

 

1


“Company Request” means any written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, its President, any Vice President, its Chief Financial Officer or its Treasurer and attested to by its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary.

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered.

“Default” means any event that is, or that with the passing of time or giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.

“Depository” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depository for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, until a successor Depository shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depository” shall mean each Person who is then a Depository hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, such Persons.

“Dollars” means the currency of the United States of America.

“Euro” means the single currency of participating member states of the economic and monetary union as contemplated in the Treaty on European Union.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America.

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by, or acting as an agency or instrumentality of, such government, the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) and (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles consistently applied as in effect in the United States of America from time to time.

“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2, evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee, and bearing the legend set forth in Section 2.15(c) (or such other legend(s) as may be applied to such Securities in accordance with Section 2.2(24)).

“Holder” or “Securityholder” means the Person in whose name a Security is registered on the Registrar’s books.

“Indebtedness” means (without duplication), with respect to any Person, any indebtedness at any time outstanding, secured or unsecured, contingent or otherwise, which is for borrowed money (whether or not the recourse of the lender is to the whole of the assets of such Person or only to a portion thereof), or evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments, or representing the balance, deferred and unpaid, of the purchase price of any property (excluding any balances that constitute accounts payable or trade payables, and other accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business), if and to the extent any of the foregoing indebtedness would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet of such Person prepared in accordance with GAAP.

“Indenture” means this Indenture as amended, restated or supplemented from time to time.

 

2


“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

“Lien” means, with respect to any property or assets of any Person, any mortgage or deed of trust, pledge, hypothecation, assignment, deposit arrangement, security interest, lien, charge, easement, encumbrance, preference, priority or other security agreement or preferential arrangement of any kind or nature whatsoever on or with respect to such property or assets (including, without limitation, any capitalized lease obligation, conditional sales or other title retention agreement having substantially the same economic effect as any of the foregoing).

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security, or an installment of principal, becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect payment or otherwise.

“Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, the President, any Vice President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or the Secretary of the Company, or any other officer designated by the Board of Directors, as the case may be.

“Officers’ Certificate” means, with respect to any Person, a certificate signed by the Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, President, any Vice President or Secretary and the Chief Financial Officer or any Treasurer of such Person, that shall comply with applicable provisions of this Indenture.

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion from legal counsel, which counsel is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or outside counsel to the Company.

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government (including any agency or political subdivision thereof).

“Redemption Date,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption pursuant to this Indenture.

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer within the corporate trust department or division of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers, and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

“SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission as constituted from time to time, or any successor performing substantially the same functions.

“Securities” means the securities that are issued under this Indenture, as amended, restated or supplemented from time to time pursuant to this Indenture.

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

“Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2.

“Significant Subsidiary” means (i) any direct or indirect Subsidiary of the Company that would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof, or (ii) any group of direct or indirect Subsidiaries of the Company that, taken together as a group, would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof.

 

3


“Stated Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security and the interest thereon, or such installment of principal or interest, is due and payable, and when used with respect to any other Indebtedness, means the date specified in the instrument governing such Indebtedness as the fixed date on which the principal of such Indebtedness, or any installment of interest thereon, is due and payable.

“Subsidiary” of any specified Person means any corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, whether now existing or hereafter organized or acquired, (i) in the case of a corporation, of which more than 50% of the total voting power of the Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors thereof is held, directly or indirectly, by such Person or any of its Subsidiaries; or (ii) in the case of a partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, with respect to which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries has the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such entity by contract or otherwise, or if in accordance with GAAP such entity is consolidated with such Person for financial statement purposes.

“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Section 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture (except as provided in Section 8.3).

“Trustee” means the party named as such in this Indenture until a successor replaces it pursuant to this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

“U.S. Government Obligations” means direct non-callable obligations of, or non-callable obligations guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.

1.2. OTHER DEFINITIONS.

The definitions of the following terms may be found in the sections indicated as follows:

 

TERM

  

DEFINED IN SECTION

Bankruptcy Law

   6.1

Business Day

   10.7

Covenant Defeasance

   9.3

Custodian

   6.1

Event of Default

   6.1

Journal

   10.15

Judgment Currency

   10.16

Legal Defeasance

   9.2

Legal Holiday

   10.7

Market Exchange Rate

   10.15

Paying Agent

   2.4

Place of Payment

   10.7

Registrar

   2.4

Required Currency

   10.16

Service Agent

   2.4

1.3. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the portion of such provision required to be incorporated herein in order for this Indenture to be qualified under the TIA is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

“Commission” means the SEC.

 

4


“Indenture securities” means the Securities.

“Indenture securityholder” means a Holder or Securityholder.

“Indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

“Indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

“Obligor on the indenture securities” means the Company or any other obligor on the Securities.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined in the TIA by reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule have the meanings therein assigned to them.

1.4. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) a term has the meaning assigned to it herein, whether defined expressly or by reference;

(2) unless otherwise specified herein, all accounting terms used herein shall be interpreted, all accounting determinations hereunder shall be made, and all financial statements required to be delivered hereunder shall be prepared in accordance with GAAP;

(3) “or” is not exclusive;

(4) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;

(5) words used herein implying any gender shall apply to each gender;

(6) the words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision; and

(7) “$,” refers to Dollars, or such other money of the United States that at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts.

ARTICLE 2 -

THE SECURITIES

2.1. ISSUABLE IN SERIES.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is $                ,                ,                 . The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, Stated Maturity, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, PROVIDED, that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 

5


2.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES.

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2(1) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2(2) through 2.2(24)) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, in each case, pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:

(1) the title of the Series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series);

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5);

(3) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

(5) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date;

(6) the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series shall be payable, or the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

(7) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof, and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(9) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof, and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

(10) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

(11) the forms of the Securities of the Series in bearer (if to be issued outside of the United States of America) or fully registered form (and, if in fully registered form, whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities);

(12) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

(13) the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, including, but not limited to, the Euro, and, if such currency of denomination is a composite currency other than the Euro, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

6


(14) the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be made;

(15) if payments of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

(16) the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

(17) the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for the Securities of the Series;

(18) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in Articles 4 or 5 that applies to Securities of the Series;

(19) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series, any provision for the payment of additional interest or liquidated damages in connection with any Event of Default, and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

(20) the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion of the Securities into or exchange of the Securities for shares of common stock, preferred stock, other debt securities, or warrants, subscription rights or units for common stock, preferred stock or other securities of any kind of the Company that apply to Securities of the Series;

(21) any Trustees, depositories, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

(22) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to other Indebtedness of the Company;

(23) if applicable, that the Securities of the Series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Article 9; and

(24) any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, except as permitted by Section 8.1, but which may modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series).

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time, and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, however, the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuances of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate.

2.3. EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION.

The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by two Officers of the Company or an Officer and an Assistant Secretary of the Company. Each such signature may be either manual or facsimile. The Company’s seal may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or reproduced on the Securities and may be in facsimile form.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

 

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A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture. The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of any Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised in writing by outside counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice-presidents shall reasonably determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability, or cause it to have a conflict of interest with respect to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Any appointment shall be evidenced by an instrument signed by an authorized officer of the Trustee, a copy of which shall be furnished to the Company. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

2.4. REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT.

The Company shall maintain in each Place of Payment for any Series of Securities (i) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange (“Registrar”), (ii) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for payment (“Paying Agent”), and PROVIDED, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the register for the Securities maintained by the Registrar), and (iii) an office or agency where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities and this Indenture may be served (“Service Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register of the Securities and of their transfer and exchange. The Company may have one or more co-Registrars and Service Agents and one or more additional Paying Agents. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office, or to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the address of the Trustee as set forth in Section 10.2. The Company or any of its Subsidiaries may also act as Paying Agent. If the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate the money held by it for the payment of principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities and hold it as a separate trust fund. The Company may change any Paying Agent, Registrar, co-registrar, Service Agent or any other Agent without notice to any Securityholder.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes, and may from time to time rescind such designations; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company hereby initially designates the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as such office of the Company. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of such designation or rescission, and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

 

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The Company shall enter into an appropriate agency agreement with any Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent not a party to this Indenture. The agreement shall implement the provisions of this Indenture that relate to such Agent. The Company shall notify the Trustee of the name and address of any such Agent. If the Company fails to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent, or Service Agent and demands, or fails to give the foregoing notice, the Trustee shall act as such. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Service Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued. The Company designates, as the New York Paying Agent, with offices at:      .

2.5. PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST.

The Trustee as Paying Agent shall, and the Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that each Paying Agent shall, hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of any Series of Securities or the Trustee all assets held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Series of Securities (whether such assets have been distributed to it by the Company or any other obligor on such Series of Securities), and the Company and the Paying Agent shall notify the Trustee in writing of any Default by the Company (or any other obligor on such Series of Securities) in making any such payment. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and account for any assets disbursed, and the Trustee may, at any time during the continuance of any payment default with respect to any Series of Securities, upon written request to a Paying Agent, require such Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and to account for any assets distributed. Upon distribution to the Trustee of all assets that shall have been delivered by the Company to the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent shall have no further liability for such assets.

2.6. SECURITYHOLDER LISTS.

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities. If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee as of each regular record date for the payment of interest on the Securities of a Series and before each related Interest Payment Date, and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, a list in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

2.7. TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.

When Securities of a Series are presented by the Holder to the Registrar with a request to register the transfer thereof, the Registrar shall register the transfer as requested if the requirements of applicable law are met, and when such Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar with a request to exchange them for an equal principal amount of other authorized denominations of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall make the exchange as requested. To permit transfers and exchanges, upon surrender of any Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency maintained pursuant to Section 2.4, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request.

If Securities are issued as Global Securities, the provisions of Section 2.15 shall apply.

All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.

Every Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange shall (if so required by the Company or the Registrar or a co-registrar) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar or a co-registrar, duly executed by the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

 

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Any exchange or transfer shall be without charge, except that the Company may require payment by the Holder of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation to a transfer or exchange, but this provision shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to Section 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5. The Trustee shall not be required to register transfers of Securities of any Series, or to exchange Securities of any Series, for a period of 15 days before the record date for selection for redemption of such Securities. The Trustee shall not be required to exchange or register transfers of Securities of any Series called or being called for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of such Security being redeemed in part.

2.8. REPLACEMENT SECURITIES.

If a mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, or if the Holder of a Security presents evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee that the Security has been lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate a replacement Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. An indemnity bond may be required by the Company or the Trustee that is sufficient in the reasonable judgment of the Company or the Trustee, as the case may be, to protect the Company, the Trustee or any Agent from any loss which any of them may suffer if a Security is replaced. The Company may charge such Holder for the Company’s out-of-pocket expenses in replacing a Security, including the fees and expenses of the Trustee. Every replacement Security shall constitute an original additional obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

2.9. OUTSTANDING SECURITIES.

Securities outstanding at any time are all Securities authenticated by the Trustee, except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation and those described in this Section 2.9 as not outstanding.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8 (other than a mutilated Security surrendered for replacement), it ceases to be outstanding until the Company and the Trustee receive proof satisfactory to each of them that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser. A mutilated Security ceases to be outstanding upon surrender of such Security and replacement thereof pursuant to Section 2.8.

If a Paying Agent holds on a Redemption Date or the Stated Maturity money sufficient to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest on, Securities payable on that date, and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders thereof pursuant to the terms of this Indenture (PROVIDED, that if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made), then on and after that date and upon payment of such money to the Holder, such Securities will be cancelled and cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

A Security does not cease to be outstanding solely because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.

2.10. WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION.

In determining whether the Holders of the required aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any Series have concurred in any direction, waiver or consent, the Securities of any Series owned by the Company or any other obligor on such Securities, or by any Affiliate of any of them, shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, waiver or consent, only Securities of such Series which the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities of such Series so owned which have been pledged in good faith shall not be disregarded if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to the Securities of such Series and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of such Series, or an Affiliate of any of them.

 

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2.11. TEMPORARY SECURITIES.

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, temporary Securities. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form, and shall carry all rights, of definitive Securities, but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, definitive Securities in exchange for temporary Securities without charge to the Holder.

2.12. CANCELLATION.

All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption or registration of transfer or exchange, or for credit against any sinking fund payment, shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee (or to any other Person for delivery to the Trustee) for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee or, at the direction of the Trustee, the Registrar or the Paying Agent, and no one else, shall cancel, and at the written request of the Company shall dispose of, all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment or cancellation. If the Company shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to this Section 2.12. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities cancelled as provided in this Section 2.12, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture.

2.13. PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST.

Except as otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 2.2 with respect to any Series of Securities, interest on any Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest, as provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the terms of such Series.

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on the Securities, it shall pay the defaulted amounts, plus any interest payable on defaulted amounts pursuant to Section 4.1, to the Persons who are Securityholders on a subsequent special record date, which date shall be the 15th day next preceding the date fixed by the Company for the payment of defaulted interest, or the next succeeding Business Day if such date is not a Business Day. At least 15 days before the special record date, the Company shall mail or cause to be mailed to each Securityholder, with a copy to the Trustee, a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of defaulted interest, and interest payable on such defaulted interest, if any, to be paid.

Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of each Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

2.14. CUSIP NUMBER.

The Company in issuing the Securities may use one or more “CUSIP” numbers, and, if the Company does so, the Trustee shall use the CUSIP number(s) in notices of redemption or exchange as a convenience to Holders, PROVIDED, that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number(s) printed in the notice or on the Securities, and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and that any such redemption or exchange shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of any such numbers.

 

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2.15. PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES.

(a) A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, and the Depository for such Global Securities or Securities.

(b) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 and in addition thereto, if, and only if the Depository (i) at any time is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and (ii) a successor Depository is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the date the Company is so informed in writing or becomes aware of the same, the Company promptly will execute and deliver to the Trustee definitive Securities, and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Request for the authentication and delivery of such definitive Securities (which the Company will promptly execute and deliver to the Trustee) and an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable, will authenticate and deliver definitive Securities, without charge, registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depository shall direct in writing (pursuant to instructions from its direct and indirect participants or otherwise) in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms. Upon the exchange of a Global Security for definitive Securities, such Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for definitive Securities, as provided in this Section 2.15(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.

(c) Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to, and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a Person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.”

(d) The Depository, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

(e) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, any Global Security shall be made to the Depository or its nominee in its capacity as the Holder thereof.

(f) Except as provided in Section 2.15(e) above, the Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a Person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of any Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depository (which may be in the form of a participants’ list for such Series) with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture, PROVIDED, that until the Trustee is so provided with a written statement, it may treat the Depository or any other Person in whose name a Global Security is registered as the owner of such Global Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Global Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

 

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2.16. PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS.

Prior to due presentment of a Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any agent of the Company, the Registrar or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name such Security is registered as the owner of such Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar or any agent of the Company, the Trustee or the Registrar shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

ARTICLE 3 -

REDEMPTION

3.1. NOTICES TO TRUSTEE.

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities, or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof, prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company elects to redeem all or part of such Series of Securities, it shall notify the Trustee of the Redemption Date and the principal amount of Securities to be redeemed at least 45 days (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) before the Redemption Date. Any such notice may be canceled at any time prior to notice of such redemption being mailed to any Holder, and shall thereby be void and of no effect.

3.2. SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series of Securities by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of a Series to be redeemed pro rata, by lot or by any other method that the Trustee considers fair and appropriate (unless the Company specifically directs the Trustee otherwise) and, if such Securities are listed on any securities exchange, by a method that complies with the requirements of such exchange.

The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of a Series outstanding and not previously called for redemption, and shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities selected for redemption and, in the case of any Security selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed at least 35 but not more than 60 days before the Redemption Date. Securities of a Series in denominations of $1,000 may be redeemed only in whole. The Trustee may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of a Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of a Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2(10), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities called for redemption.

3.3. NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, at least 30 days, and no more than 60 days, before a Redemption Date, the Company shall mail, or cause to be mailed, a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder of Securities to be redeemed at his or her last address as the same appears on the registry books maintained by the Registrar. The notice shall identify the Securities to be redeemed and shall state:

(1) the Redemption Date;

(2) the redemption price, and that such redemption price shall become due and payable on the Redemption Date;

 

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(3) if any Security of a Series is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Security of a Series to be redeemed and that, after the Redemption Date and upon surrender of such Security of a Series, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion will be issued;

(4) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

(5) that Securities of a Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price, and the place or places where each such Security is to be surrendered for such payment;

(6) that, unless the Company defaults in making the redemption payment, interest on the Securities of a Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on the Redemption Date, and the only remaining right of the Holders of such Securities is to receive payment of the redemption price upon surrender to the Paying Agent of the Securities redeemed;

(7) if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the identification of the particular Securities of a Series (or portion thereof) to be redeemed, as well as the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be redeemed and the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be outstanding after such partial redemption.

(8) the CUSIP number, if any, printed on the Securities being redeemed; and

(9) that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in such notice or printed on the Securities.

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at the Company’s sole expense.

3.4. EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

Once the notice of redemption described in Section 3.3 is mailed, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the Redemption Date and at the redemption price, plus interest, if any, accrued to the Redemption Date. Upon surrender to the Trustee or Paying Agent, such Securities of a Series shall be paid at the redemption price, plus accrued interest, if any, to the Redemption Date; PROVIDED, that if the Redemption Date is after a regular interest payment record date and on or prior to the next Interest Payment Date, the accrued interest shall be payable to the Holder of the redeemed Securities registered on the relevant record date, as specified by the Company in the notice to the Trustee pursuant to Section 3.1.

3.5. DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE.

On or prior to the Redemption Date (but no later than 11:00 A.M. Eastern Time on such date), the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date other than Securities or portions thereof called for redemption on that date which have been delivered by the Company to the Trustee for cancellation.

On and after any Redemption Date, if money sufficient to pay the redemption price of, and accrued interest on, Securities called for redemption shall have been made available in accordance with the preceding paragraph and the Company and the Paying Agent are not prohibited from paying such moneys to Holders, the Securities called for redemption will cease to accrue interest and the only right of the Holders of such Securities will be to receive payment of the redemption price of and, subject to the proviso in Section 3.4, accrued and unpaid interest on such Securities to the Redemption Date. If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid, interest will be paid, from the Redemption Date until such redemption payment is made, on the unpaid principal of the Security and any interest or premium, if any, not paid on such unpaid principal, in each case, at the rate and in the manner provided in the Securities.

 

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3.6. SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART.

Upon surrender of a Security of a Series that is redeemed in part, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, for a Holder a new Security of the same Series equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

ARTICLE 4 -

COVENANTS

4.1. PAYMENT OF SECURITIES.

The Company shall pay the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, each Series of Securities on the dates and in the manner provided in such Securities and this Indenture.

An installment of principal or interest shall be considered paid on the date it is due if the Trustee or Paying Agent holds on that date money designated for and sufficient to pay such installment and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or otherwise.

The Company shall pay interest on overdue principal, and overdue interest, to the extent lawful, at the rate specified in the Series of Securities.

4.2. SEC REPORTS.

The Company will deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after the filing of the same with the SEC, copies of the quarterly and annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports, if any, which the Company is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that each such report or document will be deemed to be so delivered to the Trustee if the Company files such report or document with the SEC through the SEC’s EDGAR database no later than the time such report or document is required to be filed with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act. Notwithstanding that the Company may not be subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, the Company will file with the SEC, to the extent permitted, and provide the Trustee with, such quarterly and annual reports and such information, documents and other reports specified in Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Company will also comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a).

4.3. WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS.

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, or plead (as a defense or otherwise) or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension, usury or other law which would prohibit or forgive the Company from paying all or any portion of the principal of, and/or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities as contemplated herein, wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, or which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company hereby expressly waives (to the extent that they may lawfully do so) all benefit or advantage of any such law, and covenants that it will not hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.

4.4. COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE.

(a) The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officers’ Certificate which complies with TIA Section 314(a)(4) stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during such fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his or her knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and that there is no default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of

 

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Default of which he or she may have knowledge and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto) and that to the best of his or her knowledge no event has occurred and remains in existence by reason of which payments on account of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities is prohibited, or if such event has occurred, a description of the event and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

(b) (i) If any Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing or (ii) if any Holder seeks to exercise any remedy hereunder with respect to a claimed Default under this Indenture or the Securities, within five Business Days after the Company becoming aware of such occurrence the Company shall deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying such event, notice or other action and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

4.5. CORPORATE EXISTENCE.

Subject to Article 5, the Company shall do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence, in accordance with the organizational documents (as the same may be amended from time to time) of the Company and the rights (charter and statutory), licenses and franchises of the Company; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise, or its corporate existence, if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

ARTICLE 5 -

SUCCESSOR CORPORATION

5.1. LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS.

(a) The Company will not, in any transaction or series of transactions, merge or consolidate with or into, or sell, assign, convey, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties and assets (as an entirety or substantially as an entirety in one transaction or a series of related transactions), to any Person or Persons, unless at the time of and after giving effect thereto (i) either (A) if the transaction or series of transactions is a merger or consolidation, the Company shall be the surviving Person of such merger or consolidation, or (B) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which the properties and assets of the Company are transferred (any such surviving Person or transferee Person being the “Surviving Entity”) shall be a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, or a corporation or comparable legal entity organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and shall expressly assume by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, all of the obligations of the Company (including, without limitation, the obligation to pay the principal of, and premium and interest, if any, on, the Securities and the performance of the other covenants) under the Securities of each Series and this Indenture, and in each case, this Indenture shall remain in full force and effect; and (ii) immediately before and immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of transactions on a pro forma basis (including, without limitation, any Indebtedness incurred or anticipated to be incurred in connection with or in respect of such transaction or series of transactions), no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing.

(b) In connection with any consolidation, merger or transfer of assets contemplated by this Section 5.1, the Company shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the Trustee, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger or transfer, and the supplemental indenture in respect thereto, comply with this Section 5.1, and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction or transactions have been complied with.

 

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5.2. SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED.

Upon any consolidation, merger or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.1 above, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company is merged or to which such transfer is made, shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor corporation had been named as the Company herein, and thereafter (except with respect to any such transfer which is a lease) the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

ARTICLE 6 -

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

6.1. EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

An “Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

(1) there is a default in the payment of any principal of, or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same becomes due and payable at Maturity, upon acceleration, redemption or otherwise;

(2) there is a default in the payment of any interest on any Security of a Series when the same becomes due and payable, and the Default continues for a period of 30 days;

(3) the Company defaults in the observance or performance of any other covenant in the Securities of a Series or in this Indenture for 90 days after written notice from the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding, which notice must specify the Default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default”;

(4) the Company or any Significant Subsidiary pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

(A) commences a voluntary case,

(B) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

(C) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

(D) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

(E) generally is not paying its debts as they become due;

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

(A) is for relief against the Company or any Significant Subsidiary in an involuntary case;

(B) appoints a Custodian of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, or for all or substantially all of the property of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary; or

(C) orders the liquidation of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days; or

(6) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2(19).

 

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The term “Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

The Trustee may withhold notice of any Default (except in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities) to the Holders of the Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 7.5. When a Default is cured, it ceases to exist.

6.2. ACCELERATION.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding (other than an Event of Default arising under Section 6.1(4) or (5)) occurs and is continuing, the Trustee by written notice to the Company, or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series then outstanding by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may declare that the entire principal amount of all the Securities of that Series then outstanding plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of acceleration are immediately due and payable, in which case such amounts shall become immediately due and payable; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that after such acceleration but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the Trustee, the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may rescind and annul such acceleration and its consequences if (i) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of accelerated principal, interest or premium, if any, that has become due solely because of the acceleration, have been cured or waived, (ii) to the extent the payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal, which has become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration, has been paid and (iii) the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree. No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereto. In case an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) with respect to the Company occurs, such principal, premium, if any, and interest amount with respect to all of the Securities of that Series shall be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the Holders of the Securities of that Series.

6.3. REMEDIES.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may pursue any available remedy by proceeding at law or in equity to collect the payment of the principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of that Series, or to enforce the performance of any provision of the Securities of that Series or this Indenture.

The Trustee may maintain a proceeding even if it does not possess any of the Securities of that Series or does not produce any of them in the proceeding. A delay or omission by the Trustee or any Securityholder in exercising any right or remedy accruing upon an Event of Default shall not impair the right or remedy or constitute a waiver of or acquiescence in the Event of Default. No remedy is exclusive of any other remedy. All available remedies are cumulative to the extent permitted by law.

6.4. WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding have the right to waive any existing Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series or compliance with any provision of this Indenture (with respect to such Series) or the Securities of such Series. Upon any such waiver, such Default with respect to such Series shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default with respect to such Series arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereto. This Section 6.4 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.

 

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6.5. CONTROL BY MAJORITY.

Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee by this Indenture with respect to such Series. The Trustee, however, may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or this Indenture, or that the Trustee determines may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of another Securityholder, or that may involve the Trustee in personal liability; PROVIDED, that the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction. This Section 6.5 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.

6.6. LIMITATION ON SUITS.

Subject to Section 6.7, a Securityholder may not institute any proceeding or pursue any remedy with respect to this Indenture or the Securities of a Series unless:

(1) the Holder gives to the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

(2) the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding make a written request to the Trustee to pursue the remedy;

(3) such Holder or Holders offer to the Trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee against any loss, liability or expense to be incurred in compliance with such request;

(4) the Trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

(5) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding.

A Securityholder may not use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another Securityholder, or to obtain a preference or priority over another Securityholder.

6.7. RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, the right of any Holder of a Security of a Series to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Security of such Series on or after the respective due dates expressed in the Security of such Series, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, is absolute and unconditional, and shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the Holder.

6.8. COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE.

If an Event of Default in payment of principal, interest or premium, if any, specified in Section 6.1(1) or (2) with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities of that Series) for the whole amount of unpaid principal and premium, if any, and accrued interest remaining unpaid, together with interest on overdue principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest, in each case at the rate then borne by the Securities of that Series, and such further amounts as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, as set forth in Section 7.7.

 

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6.9. TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM.

The Trustee may file such proofs of claim and other papers or documents, and take other actions (including sitting on a committee of creditors), as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities), any of their respective creditors or any of their respective property, and the Trustee shall be entitled and empowered to collect and receive any monies or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute the same after deduction of its charges and expenses to the extent that any such charges and expenses are not paid out of the estate in any such proceedings, and any custodian in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Securityholder to make such payments to the Trustee, and in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to, or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder, any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of a Series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceedings.

6.10. PRIORITIES.

If the Trustee collects any money pursuant to this Article 6, it shall pay out the money in the following order:

FIRST: to the Trustee for amounts due under Section 7.7;

SECOND: to Securityholders for amounts then due and unpaid for the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities in respect of which, or for the benefit of which, such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities; for principal and any premium and interest, respectively; and

THIRD: to the Company.

The Trustee may fix a record date and payment date for any payment to Securityholders pursuant to this Section 6.10. At least 15 days before such record date, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder a notice that states the record date, the payment date and amount to be paid.

6.11. UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS.

In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, a court in its discretion may require the filing by any party litigant in the suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of the suit, and the court in its discretion may assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in the suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by the party litigant. This Section 6.11 does not apply to a suit by the Trustee, a suit by a Holder pursuant to Section 6.7 or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in principal amount of the Securities of a Series then outstanding.

 

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ARTICLE 7 -

TRUSTEE

7.1. DUTIES OF TRUSTEE.

(a) If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent Person would exercise or use under the same circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

(b) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

(1) The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no covenants or obligations shall be implied in this Indenture against the Trustee.

(2) In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture, but, in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture.

(c) The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(1) This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section 7.1.

(2) The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

(3) The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in accordance with a direction received by it pursuant to Sections 6.2 and 6.5.

(d) No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds, or otherwise incur any financial liability, in the performance of any of its rights or powers if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity satisfactory to it against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it.

(e) Whether or not therein expressly so provided, paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) of this Section 7.1 shall govern every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee.

(f) The Trustee and Paying Agent shall not be liable for interest on any money received by either of them, except as the Trustee and Paying Agent may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by the law.

(g) The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections, immunities and standard of care set forth paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d) and (f) of this Section 7.1 and in Section 7.2 with respect to the Trustee.

7.2. RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

(a) Subject to Section 7.1:

(1) The Trustee may rely on, and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon, any document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper Person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

 

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(2) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel, or both, which shall conform to the provisions of Section 10.5. The Trustee shall be protected and shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such certificate or opinion.

(3) The Trustee may act through agents and attorneys, and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed by it with due care.

(4) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it reasonably believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers.

(5) The Trustee may consult with counsel reasonably acceptable to the Trustee, which may be counsel to the Company, and the advice or opinion of such counsel as to matters of law shall be full and complete authorization and protection from liability in respect of any action taken, omitted or suffered by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with the advice or opinion of such counsel.

(6) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities which may be incurred therein or thereby.

(7) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any fact or matter (including, without limitation, a Default or Event of Default) unless such fact or matter is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee.

(8) Unless otherwise expressly provided herein or in the Securities of a Series or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, the Trustee shall not have any responsibility with respect to reports, notices, certificates or other documents filed with it hereunder, except to make them available for inspection, at reasonable times, by Securityholders, it being understood that delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (except as set forth in Section 4.4).

7.3. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities, and may make loans to, accept deposits from, perform services for or otherwise deal with the Company, or any Affiliate thereof, with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee, however, shall be subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

7.4. TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER.

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities (except that the Trustee represents that it is duly authorized to execute and deliver this Indenture and authenticate the Securities and perform its obligations hereunder), and the Trustee shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the sale of Securities or any money paid to the Company pursuant to the terms of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its certificates of authentication.

7.5. NOTICE OF DEFAULT.

If a Default or an Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series, and if it is known to the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of the Default or the Event of Default, as the case may be, within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default (except if such Default or Event of Default

 

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has been validly cured or waived before the giving of such notice). Except in the case of a Default or an Event of Default in payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as the Board of Directors of the Trustee, the executive committee or any trust committee of such board and/or its Responsible Officers in good faith determine(s) that withholding the notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of that Series.

7.6. REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS.

If and to the extent required by the TIA, within 60 days after April 1 of each year, commencing the April 1 following the date of this Indenture, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder a brief report dated as of such April 1 that complies with TIA Section 313(a). The Trustee also shall comply with TIA Sections 313(b) and 313(c).

A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders shall be filed with the SEC and any stock exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee when the Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange or any delisting thereof, and the Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 313(d).

7.7. COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY.

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time reasonable compensation for its services. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee within 45 days after receipt of request for all reasonable out-of-pocket disbursements and expenses incurred or made by it in connection with its duties under this Indenture, including the reasonable compensation, disbursements and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

The Company shall indemnify the Trustee for, and hold it harmless against, any and all loss or liability incurred by it in connection with the acceptance or performance of its duties under this Indenture including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers or duties hereunder. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim asserted against the Trustee for which it may seek indemnity.

The failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not however relieve the Company of its obligations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company need not reimburse the Trustee for any expense or indemnify it against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee through its negligence or bad faith. To secure the payment obligations of the Company in this Section 7.7, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee except such money or property held in trust to pay the principal of, interest and premium, if any, on particular Securities of that Series.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

For purposes of this Section 7.7, the term “Trustee” shall include any trustee appointed pursuant to this Article 7.

7.8. REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE.

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company in writing at least 90 days in advance of such resignation.

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by notifying the removed Trustee in writing and may appoint a successor Trustee with respect to that Series with the consent of the Company, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series at its election if:

(1) the Trustee fails to comply with, or ceases to be eligible under, Section 7.10;

 

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(2) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent, or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee, under any Bankruptcy Law;

(3) a Custodian or other public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

(4) the Trustee otherwise becomes incapable of acting.

(5) If the Trustee resigns or is removed, or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee, with respect to any Series of Securities for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint, by Board Resolution, a successor Trustee.

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

If the Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series fails to comply with Section 7.10, any Securityholder of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor Trustee.

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately following such delivery, (i) the retiring Trustee with respect to one or more Series shall, subject to its rights under Section 7.7, transfer all property held by it as Trustee with respect to such Series to the successor Trustee, (ii) the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and (iii) the successor Trustee with respect to such Series shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series shall mail notice of its succession to each Securityholder of such Series.

7.9. SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION.

If the Trustee, or any Agent, consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust assets to, another corporation, subject to Section 7.10, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee or Agent, as the case may be.

7.10. ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION.

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Sections 310(a)(1), (2) and (5) in every respect. The Trustee (or in the case of a Trustee that is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the related bank holding company) shall have a combined capital and surplus of at least $100,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b), including the provision in Section 310(b)(1). In addition, if the Trustee is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the Trustee, independently of such bank holding company, shall meet the capital requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(2). If at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section 7.10, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this Article 7.

7.11. PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY.

The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated therein.

 

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7.12. PAYING AGENTS.

The Company shall cause each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to execute and deliver to it and the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section 7.12:

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as agent for the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any obligor on the Securities) in trust for the benefit of Holders of the Securities or the Trustee;

(2) that it will at any time during the continuance of any Event of Default, upon written request from the Trustee, deliver to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by it together with a full accounting thereof; and

(3) that it will give the Trustee written notice within three Business Days after any failure of the Company (or by any obligor on the Securities) in the payment of any installment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same shall be due and payable.

ARTICLE 8 -

AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS

8.1. WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend, restate or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without notice to or consent of any Securityholder:

(1) to comply with Section 5.1;

(2) to provide for certificated Securities in addition to uncertificated Securities;

(3) to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the TIA;

(4) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to make any other change herein or in the Securities that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

(5) to provide for the issuance of, and establish the form and terms and conditions of, Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture; or

(6) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series, and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee.

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any supplemental indenture authorized or permitted by the terms of this Indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which adversely affects its own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture.

8.2. WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

(a) The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend, restate or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series with the written consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series affected by such amendment, restatement or supplement without notice to any Securityholder. The Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each such Series affected by such amendment, restatement or supplement may waive compliance by the Company in a particular instance with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities of such Series without notice to any Securityholder. Subject to Section 8.4, without the consent of each Securityholder affected, however, an amendment, supplement or waiver may not:

(1) reduce the amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver to this Indenture or the Securities;

 

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(2) reduce the rate of, or change the time for payment of, interest on any Security;

(3) reduce the principal, or change the Stated Maturity, of any Security, or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

(4) make any Security payable in a currency other than that stated in the Security;

(5) change the amount or time of any payment required by the Securities, or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption of the Securities, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;

(6) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

(7) waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, or change any of the provisions with respect to the redemption of any Securities;

(8) make any changes in Section 6.6 or this Section 8.2, except to increase any percentage of Securities the Holders of which must consent to any matter; or

(9) take any other action otherwise prohibited by this Indenture to be taken without the consent of each Holder affected thereby.

(b) Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the receipt by the Trustee of evidence reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee of the consent of the Securityholders as aforesaid and of the documents described in Section 8.6, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture, unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

(c) It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders under this section to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.

After an amendment, restatement or supplement under this Section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to Securityholders a notice briefly describing the amendment, restatement or supplement. Any failure of the Company to mail any such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any supplemental indenture.

 

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8.3. COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

Every amendment to, or supplement of, this Indenture or the Securities shall comply with the TIA as then in effect.

8.4. REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS.

Until an amendment, restatement, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent conclusive and binding upon such Holder and every subsequent Holder of the same Security or portion thereof, and of any Security issued upon the transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in place thereof, even if notation of the consent is not made on any such Security. Any such Holder or subsequent Holder, however, may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security, if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the amendment, restatement, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective.

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to consent to any amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver, which record date shall be at least 30 days prior to the first solicitation of such consent. If a record date is fixed, then, notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, those Persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only such Persons, shall be entitled to consent to such amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver, or to revoke any consent previously given, whether or not such Persons continue to be Holders after such record date.

After an amendment, restatement, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, it shall bind every Securityholder, unless it makes a change described in any of clauses (1) through (9) of Section 8.2. In that case, the amendment, restatement, supplement, waiver or other action shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security; PROVIDED, that any such waiver shall not impair or affect the right of any Holder to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, a Security, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates without the consent of such Holder.

8.5. NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES.

If an amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver changes the terms of a Security of any Series, the Trustee may request the Holder of such Security to deliver it to the Trustee. In such case, the Trustee shall place an appropriate notation on such Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder. Alternatively, the Company, in exchange for such Security, may issue, and the Trustee shall authenticate, a new security that reflects the changed terms. Failure to make the appropriate notation or issue a new Security shall not affect the validity and effect of such amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver.

8.6. TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.

The Trustee shall sign any amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver authorized pursuant to this Article 8 if the amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver does not adversely affect the rights, duties, liabilities or immunities of the Trustee. If it does, the Trustee may, but need not, sign it. In signing or refusing to sign such amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver the Trustee shall be entitled to receive and, subject to Section 7.1, shall be fully protected in relying upon an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel stating that such amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Company may not sign an amendment, restatement or supplement until the Board of Directors of the Company approves it.

ARTICLE 9 -

DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE

9.1. DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE.

The Company may terminate its obligations under the Securities of any Series and this Indenture with respect to such Series, except the obligations referred to in the last paragraph of this Section 9.1, if there shall have been canceled by the Trustee, or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, all Securities of such Series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than any Securities of such Series that are asserted to have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced as provided in Section 2.8) and the Company has paid all sums payable by it hereunder or deposited all required sums with the Trustee.

 

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After such delivery the Trustee upon request shall acknowledge in a writing prepared by or on behalf of the Company the discharge of the Company’s obligations under the Securities of such Series and this Indenture, except for those surviving obligations specified below.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company in Sections 7.7, 9.5 and 9.6 shall survive.

9.2. LEGAL DEFEASANCE.

The Company may at its option, by Board Resolution, be discharged from its obligations with respect to the Securities of any Series on the date upon which the conditions set forth in Section 9.4 below are satisfied (hereinafter, “Legal Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Legal Defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire Indebtedness represented by the Securities of such Series and to have satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, subject to Section 9.6, execute proper instruments acknowledging the same, as are delivered to it by the Company), except for the following, which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder: (A) the rights of Holders of outstanding Securities of such Series to receive solely from the trust funds described in Section 9.4 and as more fully set forth in such section, payments in respect of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of such Series when such payments are due, (B) the Company’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such Series under Sections 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 and 2.9, (C) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder (including claims of, or payments to, the Trustee under or pursuant to Section 7.7) and (D) this Article 9. Subject to compliance with this Article 9, the Company may exercise its option under this Section 9.2 with respect to the Securities of any Series notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option under Section 9.3 below with respect to the Securities of such Series.

9.3. COVENANT DEFEASANCE.

At the option of the Company, pursuant to a Board Resolution, the Company shall be released from its obligations with respect to the outstanding Securities of any Series under Sections 4.2 through 4.5, inclusive, and Section 5.1, with respect to the outstanding Securities of such Series, on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 9.4 are satisfied (hereinafter, “Covenant Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that the Company may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such specified section or portion thereof, whether directly or indirectly by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such specified Section or portion thereof or by reason of any reference in any such specified section or portion thereof to any other provision herein or in any other document, but the remainder of this Indenture and the Securities of any Series shall be unaffected thereby.

9.4. CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE.

The following shall be the conditions to application of Section 9.2 or Section 9.3 to the outstanding Securities of a Series:

(1) the Company shall irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 7.10 who shall agree to comply with the provisions of this Article 9 applicable to it) as funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of the Securities, (A) money in an amount, or (B) U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than the due date of any payment, money in an amount, or (C) a combination thereof, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee) to pay and discharge, the principal of, and accrued interest and premium, if any, on, the outstanding Securities of such Series at the Stated Maturity of such principal, interest or premium, if any, or on dates for payment and redemption of such principal, interest and premium, if any, selected in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and of the Securities of such Series;

 

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(2) no Event of Default or Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit, or shall have occurred and be continuing at any time during the period ending on the 91st day after the date of such deposit or, if longer, ending on the day following the expiration of the longest preference period under any Bankruptcy Law applicable to the Company in respect of such deposit as specified in the Opinion of Counsel identified in paragraph (8) below (it being understood that this condition shall not be deemed satisfied until the expiration of such period);

(3) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not cause the Trustee to have a conflicting interest for purposes of the TIA with respect to any securities of the Company;

(4) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute default under, any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

(5) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that, as a result of such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, neither the trust nor the Trustee will be required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended;

(6) in the case of an election under Section 9.2, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that or (ii) there has been a change in any applicable Federal income tax law with the effect that, and such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series or Persons in their positions will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such Legal Defeasance and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if such Legal Defeasance had not occurred;

(7) in the case of an election under Section 9.3, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such Covenant Defeasance, and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Covenant Defeasance had not occurred;

(8) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Article 9 relating to either the Legal Defeasance under Section 9.2 or the Covenant Defeasance under Section 9.3 (as the case may be) have been complied with;

(9) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit under clause (1) was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any creditors of the Company or others; and

(10) the Company shall have paid, or duly provided for payment under terms mutually satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee, all amounts then due to the Trustee pursuant to Section 7.7.

9.5. DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

All money, U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 9.4 in respect of the outstanding Securities shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent as the Trustee may determine, to the Holders of such Securities, of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal, accrued interest and premium, if any, but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

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The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 9.4 or the principal, interest and premium, if any, received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of the outstanding Securities.

Anything in this Article 9 to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to payment of any of its outstanding fees and expenses, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held by the Trustee as provided in Section 9.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect an equivalent Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

9.6. REINSTATEMENT.

If the Trustee or Paying Agent is unable to apply any money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations in accordance with Section 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 or 9.4 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and the Securities shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to this Article 9 until such time as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations, as the case may be, in accordance with Section 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 or 9.4; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of, or accrued interest or premium, if any, on, any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent.

9.7. MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT.

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, all moneys then held by any Paying Agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee, or, if sufficient moneys have been deposited pursuant to Section 9.1, be paid to the Company, and thereupon such Paying Agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

9.8. MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE.

Any moneys deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent or then held by the Company in trust for the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the Holder of such Security for two years after the date upon which the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Security shall have respectively become due and payable shall be repaid to the Company upon Company Request, or if such moneys are then held by the Company in trust, such moneys shall be released from such trust; and the Holder of such Security entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money shall thereupon cease. After payment to the Company or the release of any money held in trust by the Company, Securityholders entitled to the money must look only to the Company for payment as general creditors, unless applicable abandoned property law designates another Person.

 

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ARTICLE 10 -

MISCELLANEOUS

10.1. TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS.

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision which is required to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, the required TIA provision shall control. If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the TIA which may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or to be excluded, as the case may be.

10.2. NOTICES.

Any notice or communication shall be given in writing and delivered in Person, sent by facsimile (and receipt confirmed by telephone or electronic transmission report), delivered by commercial courier service or mailed by first-class mail, postage prepaid, addressed as follows:

If to the Company:       Pardes Biosciences, Inc.

2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 250

PMB#052

Carlsbad, California, 92008

Attention: Chief Financial Officer

Copy to:

Fenwick & West LLP

555 California Street

San Francisco, CA, 94104

Fax: (650) 988-5200

Attention: Ran D. Ben-Tzur; Jennifer J. Hitchcock

If to the Trustee:

The Company or the Trustee by written notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications. Any notice or communication to the Company or the Trustee shall be deemed to have been given or made as of the date so delivered if personally delivered; when receipt is confirmed by telephone or electronic transmission report, if sent by facsimile; and three Business Days after mailing if sent by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid (except that a notice of change of address shall not be deemed to have been given until actually received by the addressee).

Any notice or communication mailed to a Securityholder shall be mailed to such Securityholder by first-class mail, postage prepaid, at such Securityholder’s address shown on the register kept by the Registrar.

Failure to mail, or any defect in, a notice or communication to a Securityholder shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders. If a notice or communication to a Securityholder is mailed in the manner provided above, it shall be deemed duly given, three Business Days after such mailing, whether or not the addressee receives it.

In case by reason of the suspension of regular mail service, or by reason of any other cause, it shall be impossible to mail any notice as required by this Indenture, then such method of notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient mailing of such notice.

 

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In the case of Global Securities, notices or communications to be given to Securityholders shall be given to the Depository, in accordance with its applicable policies as in effect from time to time.

In addition to the manner provided for in the foregoing provisions, notices or communications to Securityholders may be given by the Company by release made to Reuters Economic Services and Bloomberg Business News.

10.3. COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS.

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or any other Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).

10.4. CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT.

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

(1) an Officers’ Certificate (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 10.5 below) stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

(2) an Opinion of Counsel (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 10.5 below) stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

10.5. STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION.

Each certificate and opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than pursuant to Section 4.4) shall include:

(1) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

(2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(3) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, it or he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable it or him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such covenant or condition has been complied with.

10.6. RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS.

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or at meetings of Securityholders. The Registrar, Paying Agent and Service Agent may make reasonable rules for their functions.

10.7. BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT.

A “Business Day” is a day that is not a Legal Holiday. A “Legal Holiday” is a Saturday, a Sunday, a federally-recognized holiday or a day on which banking institutions are not authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to be open in the State of New York.

 

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If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a Place of Payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period. “Place of Payment” means the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of a Series are payable as specified as contemplated by Section 2.2. If the regular record date is a Legal Holiday, the record date shall not be affected.

10.8. GOVERNING LAW.

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, AS APPLIED TO CONTRACTS MADE AND PERFORMED WITHIN THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAW.

10.9. NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS.

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan, security or debt agreement of the Company or any Subsidiary thereof. No such indenture, loan, security or debt agreement may be used to interpret this Indenture.

10.10. NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS.

A director, officer, employee, stockholder or incorporator, as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or the Indenture. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. Such waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issuance of the Securities.

10.11. SUCCESSORS.

All covenants and agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind the Company’s successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not. All agreements of the Trustee, any additional trustee and any Paying Agents in this Indenture shall bind their respective successors and assigns.

10.12. MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS.

The parties may sign multiple counterparts (which may include counterparts delivered by any standard form of telecommunication) of this Indenture. Each signed counterpart shall be deemed an original, but all of them together represent one and the same agreement. Counterparts may be delivered via facsimile, electronic mail (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronics Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com) or other transmission method and any counterparty so delivered shall be deemed to have been duly and validly delivered and be valid and effective for all purposes.

10.13. TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.

The table of contents, cross-reference sheet and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

10.14. SEVERABILITY.

Each provision of this Indenture shall be considered separable, and if for any reason any provision which is not essential to the effectuation of the basic purpose of this Indenture or the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby, and a Holder shall have no claim therefor against any party hereto.

 

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10.15. SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS.

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in a coin or currency other than Dollars (including Euros), then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be that amount of Dollars that could be obtained for such amount at the Market Exchange Rate at such time. For purposes of this Section 10.15, “Market Exchange Rate” shall mean the noon Dollar buying rate in New York City for cable transfers of that currency as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, in the case of Euros, Market Exchange Rate shall mean the rate of exchange determined by the Commission of the European Union (or any successor thereto) as published in the Official Journal of the European Union (such publication or any successor publication, the “Journal”). If such Market Exchange Rate is not available for any reason with respect to such currency, the Trustee shall use, in its sole discretion and without liability on its part, such quotation of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or, in the case of Euros, the rate of exchange as published in the Journal, as of the most recent available date, or quotations or, in the case of Euros, rates of exchange from one or more major banks in New York City or in the country of issue of the currency in question or, in the case of Euros, in Luxembourg or such other quotations or, in the case of Euros, rates of exchange as the Trustee, upon consultation with the Company, shall deem appropriate. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

All decisions and determinations of the Trustee regarding the Market Exchange Rate or any alternative determination provided for in the preceding paragraph shall be in the Trustee’s sole discretion, and shall, in the absence of manifest error, be conclusive to the extent permitted by law for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Company and all Holders.

10.16. JUDGMENT CURRENCY.

The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, or other amount on, the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which, in accordance with normal banking procedures, the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a Business Day, in which instance, the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which, in accordance with normal banking procedures, the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the Business Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender or any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)) in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture.

[REMAINDER OF THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed, and their respective corporate seals to be hereunto affixed and attested, all as of the day and year first above written.

 

PARDES BIOSCIENCES, INC.

By:    
 

Name:

   
 

Title:

   

[Name of Trustee]

By:        
 

Name:

   
 

Title:

   
By:        
 

Name:

   
 

Title:

   

 

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EX-5.1

Exhibit 5.1

 

LOGO

January 11, 2023

Pardes Biosciences, Inc.

2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 250

PMB#052

Carlsbad, California 92008

Ladies and Gentlemen:

At your request, we have examined the Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed by Pardes Biosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”) with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on January 11, 2023 (the “Registration Statement”) in connection with the registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), of the offering and sale from time to time of up to $200,000,000 aggregate offering amount of (i) shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”), (ii) shares of the Company’s preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share (the “Preferred Stock”), (iii) one or more series of debt securities (the “Debt Securities”) issuable pursuant to an indenture (the “Indenture”) by and between the Company and a financial institution to be identified therein as trustee (the “Trustee”), (iv) warrants to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock and/or Debt Securities (the “Warrants”), (v) subscription rights to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock and/or Debt Securities (the “Subscription Rights”), and/or (vi) units consisting of any combination of such foregoing securities described in clauses (i) through (v) above (the “Units”). The Common Stock, the Preferred Stock, the Debt Securities, the Warrants, the Subscription Rights and the Units are collectively referred to herein as the “Securities.” The Securities may be sold from time to time by the Company as set forth in the Registration Statement, the prospectus contained within the Registration Statement (the “Prospectus”) and supplements to the Prospectus.

We advise you that we have also examined (i) the sales agreement prospectus filed, together with the Registration Statement and Prospectus, with the Commission on January 11, 2023 (the “Sales Agreement Prospectus”) relating to the sale by the Company through SVB Securities LLC, as the sales agent (the “Sales Agent”), from time to time of shares of Common Stock (the “Placement Shares”) having an aggregate maximum offering price of up to $50,000,000 pursuant to the Registration Statement and the Sales Agreement Prospectus for the sale of the Placement Shares included in the Registration Statement, and (ii) that certain Sales Agreement, dated as of January 11, 2023, by and between the Company and the Sales Agent (the “Sales Agreement”).

In connection with our opinions expressed below we have examined originals or copies of the Company’s Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “Restated Certificate”) and Amended and Restated By-laws (the “Bylaws” and, together with the Restated Certificate, as each may be amended, modified or restated, the “Charter Documents”), certain corporate proceedings of the Company’s board of directors (the “Board”) and stockholders relating to the Registration Statement, the Company’s Restated Certificate and Bylaws, and such other agreements, documents, certificates and statements of the Company, its transfer agent and public or government officials, as we have deemed advisable, and have examined such questions of law as we have considered necessary. We have assumed, and express no opinion as to, the genuineness of all signatures on documents submitted to us, the authenticity and completeness of all documents submitted to us as originals, the conformity to originals and completeness of all documents submitted to us as copies, the legal capacity of all persons or entities (except for the Company) executing the same, the absence of any undisclosed termination, modification, waiver or amendment to any document reviewed by us, the absence of any other extrinsic agreements or documents that might change or affect the interpretation or terms of documents we have reviewed, and the due authorization, execution and delivery of all such documents where due authorization, execution and delivery are prerequisites to the effectiveness thereof. In giving our opinion, we have also relied upon a good standing certificate regarding the Company issued by the Delaware Secretary of State dated January 11, 2023 and a management certificate addressed to us and dated of even date herewith executed by the Company containing certain factual representations (the “Management Certificate”).

 


We also have assumed that any certificates or instruments representing the Securities, including the Placement Shares, will be, when issued, properly signed by authorized officers of the Company, and, in the case of Debt Securities, properly authenticated in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and delivered to the intended recipients with the intent that the Company be bound thereby. Furthermore, with respect to the Company’s uncertificated capital stock, we assume that issued Common Stock, including any Placement Shares, will not be reissued by the Company in uncertificated form until any previously issued stock certificate representing such issued Common Stock has been surrendered to the Company in accordance with Section 158 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, and that the Company will properly register the transfer of the Common Stock to the purchasers of such Common Stock on the Company’s record of uncertificated securities. We also have assumed that the Indenture at the time of execution, authentication, issuance and delivery of the Debt Securities will be a valid and legally binding obligation of the Trustee.

As to matters of fact relevant to this opinion, we have relied solely upon our examination of the documents referred to above and the Management Certificate and have assumed the current accuracy and completeness of the information obtained from the documents referred to above and the representations and warranties made by representatives of the Company to us, including but not limited to those set forth in the Management Certificate. We have made no independent investigation or other attempt to verify the accuracy of any of such information or to determine the existence or non-existence of any other factual matters.

We are admitted to practice law in the State of California and we render this opinion only with respect to, and express no opinion herein concerning the application or effect of the laws of any jurisdiction other than (i) the existing laws of the State of California, (ii) the Delaware General Corporation Law, and (iii) solely with respect to whether or not the Debt Securities are the valid and binding obligations of the Company, the existing laws of the state of New York (clauses (i) through (iii) collectively, the “Applicable Laws”). To the extent that any Warrant Agreement, Subscription Rights Agreement or Unit Agreement (each as defined below) is governed by the laws of any jurisdiction other than the State of California, our opinion expressed below assumes that Internal California Law (as defined below) will exclusively apply to and govern such Warrant Agreement, Subscription Rights Agreement or Unit Agreement, without regard to any interpretation or construction that might be indicated by the laws stated as governing any such Warrant Agreement, Subscription Rights Agreement or Unit Agreement. As used herein “Internal California Law means the internal laws of the State of California applicable to a contract made by California residents in the State of California that selects California law as the governing law of such contract, without regard to any laws or equitable principles regarding choice of law, conflict of laws or public policies that might make any other law(s) applicable. Without limitation, we express no opinion with respect to the federal laws of the United States of America or the securities or “blue sky” laws of any state or any local or regional laws.

In connection with our opinions expressed below, we have assumed that, (i) at or prior to the time of the delivery of any of the Securities, including the Placement Shares, there will not have occurred any change in the law or the facts affecting the validity of the Securities, (ii) if any Debt Securities are issued, such Debt Securities will only be issued pursuant to the Indenture in the form filed with the Registration Statement as an exhibit and that there will not have occurred any change in law affecting the enforceability of the Debt Securities or the Indenture, (iii) all applicable covenants binding on or applicable to the Company restricting the issuance of Debt Securities will have been validly waived, (iv) the Registration Statement and any amendments (including any necessary post-effective amendments) will have been declared effective under the Securities Act, (v) at the time of the offer, issuance and sale of any Securities, including the Placement Shares, no stop order suspending the Registration Statement’s effectiveness will have been issued and remain in effect, (vi) no future amendments will be made to the Charter Documents that would be in conflict with or inconsistent with the Company’s right and ability to issue the Securities, including without limitation the Placement Shares, (vii) at the time of each offer, issuance and sale of any Securities, including without limitation the Placement Shares, the Company will have a sufficient number of authorized and unissued and unreserved shares of the applicable class or series of its capital stock included in (or purchasable upon exercise or conversion of) the Securities, including without limitation the Placement Shares, so issued and sold (after taking into account all other outstanding securities of the Company which may require the Company to issue shares of such applicable class or series) to be able to issue all such shares, and (viii) all purchasers of Securities, including without limitation the purchasers of the Placement Shares, will timely pay in full to the Company all amounts they have

 

2


agreed to pay to purchase such Securities, including the Placement Shares, as approved by the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof, and that the purchase price of any Securities, including the Placement Shares, that are shares of capital stock will not be less than the par value thereof. We also have assumed that the terms of any Debt Securities to be established subsequent to the date hereof, the issuance and delivery of Securities, including the Placement Shares, subsequent to the date hereof and the compliance by the Company with the terms of such Securities, including the Placement Shares, will not violate any applicable law (including, without limitation, any law relating to usury or similar laws) or result in a violation of any provision of any of the Charter Documents or of any instrument or agreement then binding upon the Company or any restriction imposed by any court or governmental body having jurisdiction over the Company.

This opinion is qualified by, and is subject to, and we render no opinion with respect to, the following limitations and exceptions to the enforceability of the Debt Securities:

 

  (1)

The effect of the laws of bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, arrangement, moratorium, fraudulent conveyance, assignment for the benefit of creditors, and other similar laws now or hereinafter in effect relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, including the effect of statutory or other laws regarding fraudulent transfers or preferential transfers.

 

  (2)

The effect of general principles of equity and similar principles, including, without limitation, concepts of materiality, reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing, public policy and unconscionability, and the possible unavailability of specific performance, injunctive relief, or other equitable remedies, regardless of whether considered in a proceeding in equity or at law.

 

  (3)

The effect of laws relating to usury or permissible rates of interest for loans, forbearances or the use of money.

We express no opinion regarding the effectiveness of any waiver or stay, extension or of unknown future rights. Further, we express no opinion regarding the effect of provisions relating to indemnification, exculpation or contribution to the extent such provisions may be held unenforceable as contrary to federal or state securities laws or public policy.

The Company has informed us that the Company intends to issue the Securities, including without limitation the Placement Shares, from time to time on a delayed or continuous basis. This opinion is limited to the Applicable Laws, including the rules and regulations thereunder, as in effect on the date hereof. We are basing this opinion on our understanding that, prior to issuing any Securities, excluding the Placement Shares, in connection with the Registration Statement, the Company will advise us in writing of the terms thereof and other information material thereto, will afford us an opportunity to review the operative documents pursuant to which such Securities are to be issued (including the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the applicable supplement to the Prospectus, as then in effect) and will file such supplement or amendment to this opinion (if any) as we may reasonably consider necessary or appropriate with respect to such Securities. However, we undertake no responsibility to monitor the Company’s future compliance with applicable laws, rules or regulations of the Commission or other governmental body. In particular, except with respect to the Placement Shares, we assume that the Company will obtain the requisite approval of the Board and the requisite approval of its stockholders, if required by the laws of the State of Delaware and the Charter Documents, or if necessary because the Company does not have a sufficient number of authorized but unissued and unreserved shares of its capital stock at the time of issuance to comply with any Securities. Except with respect to the Placement Shares, we also assume the Company will timely file any and all supplements to the Registration Statement and Prospectus as are necessary to comply with applicable laws in effect from time to time and duly amend its Restated Certificate to increase the authorized number of shares of its capital stock as necessary if the number of such shares to be sold pursuant to the Registration Statement would cause the Company to issue more such shares than it has authorized and unissued and unreserved.

With respect to our opinion expressed in paragraph (7) below, we have assumed that, upon the issuance of any of the Placement Shares, the total number of shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding and reserved for future issuance will not exceed the total number of shares of Common Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under its certificate of incorporation, as then in effect.

 

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Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the qualifications and exceptions contained herein, we are of the following opinion:

1. With respect to the shares of Common Stock registered pursuant to the Registration Statement (other than the Placement Shares), when (i) the issuance of and the terms of the offering of such shares of Common Stock and related matters have been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof, and, if required, of the stockholders of the Company in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws and (ii) if required, certificates representing the shares of Common Stock have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered either (a) in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, or upon the exercise of Warrants to purchase Common Stock, upon payment of the consideration therefor (in an amount not less than the par value of the Common Stock) provided for therein and approved by the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof, or (b) upon conversion or exercise of any other security of the Company, in accordance with the terms of such security or the instrument governing such security providing for such conversion or exercise as approved by the Board, for the consideration approved by the Board (in an amount not less than the par value per share of the Common Stock), then such shares of Common Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

2. With respect to any particular series of shares of Preferred Stock registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance and terms of such shares of Preferred Stock, the terms of the offering thereof and related matters, including the adoption of a certificate of designation relating to such Preferred Stock conforming to the Company’s Restated Certificate and Bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law (a “Certificate”) and the filing of such Certificate with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware (or the filing of an amendment to the Company’s Restated Certificate to similar effect), have been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board and, if required, of the stockholders of the Company in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws and (ii) if required, certificates representing the shares of Preferred Stock have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered either (a) in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, or upon the exercise of Warrants to purchase Preferred Stock, upon payment of the consideration therefor (in an amount not less than the par value per share of such Preferred Stock) provided for therein and approved by the Board or (b) upon conversion or exercise of any other security of the Company, in accordance with the terms of such security or the instrument governing such security providing for such conversion or exercise as approved by the Board, for the consideration approved by the Board (in an amount not less than the par value per share of the Preferred Stock), then such shares of Preferred Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

3. With respect to any Debt Securities registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance of such Debt Securities has been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board and, if required, of the stockholders of the Company in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws, (ii) an Indenture relating to such Debt Securities in the form filed with the Registration Statement as an exhibit has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by each of the Company (by duly authorized officers of the Company) and the Trustee, (iii) the form and terms of the Debt Securities have been duly established in accordance with the Indenture pursuant to resolutions duly adopted by the Board and as set forth in an officer’s certificate or supplemental indenture duly authorized by the Board in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws and duly executed by an authorized officer of the Company, and (iv) instruments representing such Debt Securities have been duly executed and authenticated in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and any supplement thereto, and issued, sold and delivered in the manner and for the consideration approved by the Board and stated in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any prospectus supplement relating thereto (as amended as of the date of such issuance, sale and delivery), any applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement and upon the exercise of Warrants to purchase Debt Securities, upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for therein, then the Debt Securities will be validly issued and will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

4. With respect to any Warrants registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance and terms of such Warrants, the terms, execution and delivery of the warrant agreement relating to the Warrants (“Warrant Agreement”), the terms of the offering thereof and related matters have been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board and, if required, of the stockholders of the Company in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws, (ii) the Warrant Agreement has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the Company by duly authorized officers of the Company, and (iii) such Warrants have been duly executed, issued and delivered by the Company by duly authorized officers of the Company in accordance with the provisions of the applicable Warrant Agreement and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for therein and approved by the Board, such Warrants will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

 

 

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5. With respect to any Subscription Rights registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance and terms of such Subscription Rights, the terms, execution and delivery of the subscription rights agreement relating to the Subscription Rights (“Subscription Rights Agreement”), the terms of the offering thereof and related matters have been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board and, if required, the stockholders of the Company in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws, (ii) the Subscription Rights Agreement has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the Company by duly authorized officers of the Company, and (iii) such Subscription Rights have been duly executed, issued and delivered by the Company by duly authorized officers of the Company in accordance with the provisions of the applicable Subscription Rights Agreement and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for therein and approved by the Board, such Subscription Rights will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

6. With respect to any Units registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the conditions outlined in the immediately preceding paragraphs (1) through (5) that apply to the Securities that make up such Units are all met, (ii) the issuance and terms of such Units, the terms, execution and delivery of the unit purchase agreement relating to such Units (“Unit Agreement”), the terms of the offering thereof and related matters have been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board and, if required, of the stockholders of the Company, (iii) the Unit Agreement has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the Company by duly authorized officers of the Company, and (iv) such Units have been duly executed, issued and delivered by the Company by duly authorized officers of the Company in accordance with the provisions of the applicable Unit Agreement and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for therein and approved by the Board, such Units will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

7. The Placement Shares, to be issued and sold by the Company, have been duly authorized for issuance and, when issued, sold and delivered in the manner of and for consideration (of not less than par value per share of the Common Stock) in the manner contemplated by the Sales Agreement and the Sales Agreement Prospectus and in accordance with the resolutions duly adopted and to be duly adopted by the Board and to be duly adopted by the Placement Committee of the Board with respect to the offer, sale and issuance of the Placement Shares, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

We consent to the use of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and further consent to all references to us, if any, in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and Sales Agreement Prospectus constituting parts thereof and any amendments thereto. In giving this consent we do not thereby admit that we come within the category of persons whose consent is required by the Securities Act or by the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

[Concluding Paragraph Follows on Next Page]

 

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This opinion is intended solely for use in connection with the issuance and sale of the Securities subject to the Registration Statement and is not to be relied upon for any other purpose. In providing this letter, we are opining only as to the specific legal issues expressly set forth above, and no opinion shall be inferred as to any other matter or matters. This opinion is rendered on, and speaks only as of, the date of this letter first written above, is based solely on our understanding of facts in existence as of such date after the aforementioned examination and does not address any potential changes in facts, circumstance or law that may occur after the date of this opinion letter. We assume no obligation to advise you of any fact, circumstance, event or change in the law or the facts that may hereafter be brought to our attention whether or not such occurrence would affect or modify any of the opinions expressed herein.

 

Very truly yours,

/s/ Fenwick & West LLP

FENWICK & WEST LLP

 

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EX-23.1

Exhibit 23.1

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

We consent to the use of our report dated March 29, 2022, with respect to the consolidated financial statements of Pardes Biosciences, Inc., incorporated herein by reference and to the reference to our firm under the heading “Experts” in the prospectus.

/s/ KPMG LLP

Irvine, California

January 9, 2023

EX-FILING FEES

Exhibit 107.1

Calculation of Fee Filing Tables

Form S-3

(Form Type)

Pardes Biosciences, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

Table 1 – Newly Registered Securities

 

                 
     Security Type  

Security

Class

Title

  Fee
Calculation
or Carry
Forward
Rule
 

Amount

Registered

  Proposed
Maximum
Offering
Price Per
Unit
 

Maximum
Aggregate
Offering

Price

 

Fee

Rate

  Amount of
Registration
Fee
   
Newly Registered Securities    
                 

Fees to be

Paid

  Equity   Common stock, par value $0.0001 per share   457(o)